5 granted to foreigners who were Russian nationals
Until the XVII century Russian law did not give a clear definition of who is a Russian citizen, and who - a foreigner.
Ordinary people and did for his thought any orthodox and become a Russian citizen could anyone, had only to take the orthodox faith. Russian history is replete with examples where foreigners faithfully served our homeland.
The first Russian intellectual, who hated by many Russian, Lefort could not only become an indispensable assistant to Peter the Great, but also the best friend, when parting with whom the king cried. It Lefort persuaded Peter to go abroad, knocked on the Azov campaign, his efforts foreigners received visa-free entry and exit from Russia.
Yes, and lay a new capital on the Neva Peter also suggested Lefort. In spite of the hatred which he felt on the Russian side, accusing him in a terrible sin - violent bradobritii and tobacco smoking, Lefort loved the country in which he lived, no less than its people.
We can say that it was he who saved the Princess Sophia of executions, persuaded the king to exile her to Novodevichy Convent. Through the efforts of the old rogue from the penalty to be saved and some archers-conspirators - they only sent to Siberia. And so what could hold revels Lefort - no modern agencies organizing events, and never dreamed of!
By Dane by birth Russian Vitus Ionassenu not treated differently as "Ivan Ivanovich". After graduating in 1703, the Amsterdam Marine Cadet Corps, he began serving in the Russian Baltic Fleet in the rank of lieutenant. In the story came as the leader of two Kamchatka expeditions. Most familiar name Bering Strait on the name of the same name - the Bering Sea, which is located between Alaska and Chukotka. In addition, it named after the island and the sea in the Pacific Ocean, and the North-Eastern Siberia, Alaska and Chukotka now simply called Beringia.
By the way, the real face of Bering was restored only in 1992, at that time, it was also proven that the fat man, whose portrait is usually placed on the walls in the geography of the offices, not Ivan, and his uncle, the poet Pedersen Vitus Bering.
As you know, most of his life Kant lived in Konigsberg, a city that was captured by the Russian in the course of the Seven Years' War. Among other things, the philosopher took the oath of allegiance to the Empress Elizabeth. His ministry Russia manifested in lectures by pyrotechnics and fortification for the officers of the army. Due to the heavy load Kant was unable at this time to write a single work.
A little later, Kant has a chance to get a place in the Koenigsberg Academy - an assignment that would save it from financial dependence. However, the place of claims five more people. Then Kant writes a letter to the Empress Elizabeth, asking it to determine the position of professor of metaphysics and logic. However, the queen remains indifferent to the requests of his subject, and the place gets more mature and experienced Bucco math.
The famous Russian explorer and discoverer of Antarctica named Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen was born in the family of Baltic German nobility. In 10 years, he was enrolled in the Naval Cadet Corps in Kronstadt, and after 6 years was promoted to midshipmen. He took part in the first Russian circumnavigation led by Kruzenshtern. His independent expedition is recognized as one of the most complex and important history. Interestingly, it was then Bellingshausen denied misleading Cook, who claimed that the south polar seas further movement is possible. Bellingshausen not only continued to move on two sailing ships of small size, it is not adapted for movement on the ice, but also made during the expedition many discoveries.
The descendant Russified German noble family of Adam Johann von Krusenstern is known primarily as the leader of the first Russian world expedition. Perhaps on the way to such outstanding achievements Kruzenshtern helped his daily exercises-pound weights, which he took with him on any expedition.
According to his contemporaries, he was very well built, and the strength is not inferior to the most hardened sailors. Another "weakness" Kruzenshtern had a love for animals - in the expeditions he was always accompanied by a favorite Spaniel.