What is waiting for the end of the solar system?
It took 13, 8 billion years of cosmic evolution, so we ended up here. Generation of stars had to live and die in order to create heavy elements; tiny protogalaxy were to merge, to form the Milky Way; clouds of interstellar gas were to collapse and form new stars from the solid planets; complex inorganic and organic chemistry were friends at one of these new worlds; biological evolution - and natural disasters - had to go on one of the winding paths that eventually only a few thousand years ago, there were people.
For the last 12,000 years or so, we have created agriculture, science, the country and the whole of modern civilization that we know today. This is a fascinating journey that has transformed our world and, thanks to the human space program, converts our solar system.
But the world we enjoy today, no matter what we do, it will not last forever. A number of earthly events have to change things in our world and to make the Earth a completely unrecognizable to anyone who lives today. After about 60,000 years the Sun and the stars will move our modern constellation disappear from the face of the sky. After another 100 000 years, we are likely to get into a new ice age, for reasons that have little to do with human activity. And before you take another million years, the volcanoes of the earth will forever change the landscape of the earth.
But all this is minor compared to the fact that the universe is preparing for us. Slightly less than four billion years the Andromeda galaxy (and possibly the galaxy Triangle) merged with our galaxy the Milky Way, the galaxy structure has changed a lot and the view of the night sky. Now she is in 2, 5 million light-years away and is moving at a speed of 43 km / s, which means the first collision at 3, 8 billion years old, and in 5, 5 billion years, the merger will be completed. Gravity will cause the entire local group of galaxies will merge with our one giant elliptical galaxy Mlekomeda. On large cosmic scale all the other galaxies will continue to recede away from us, yet not disappear from our sight at all - after about 100 billion years.
All the while, our solar system will be in perfect order, except that the look will be different. Sun will continue to heat up as they age until 1-2 billion years does not put an end to life on Earth by boiling the oceans of our planet. After another 5-7 billion in the core of the sun over the nuclear fuel, and our own star becomes a red giant, engulfing Mercury and Venus in the process. Due to the nature of stellar evolution, the system Earth - Moon is likely to be pushed away and it is lucky to avoid the fiery fate of our internal neighbors.
After Sun dozhzhet remaining nuclear fuel - mostly helium - its outer layers swell in a planetary nebula, and the core will shrink until it becomes a white dwarf. This is the ultimate fate of almost all the stars in our universe. But the world will still be here revolve around our cold, dim remnant stars are still 9, 5 billion years (if you count from the current time). All this time, the Earth will continue to revolve around the Sun and the Moon - to provide her gravitational pull, causing torque. Therefore, the Moon will go farther away from the Earth, the Earth's rotation is slowing down. This slowdown will be almost imperceptible; Earth's rotation will be slowed down to some 1, 4 milliseconds for a hundred years. But after 50 billion years, the orbital period of the moon will be 47 days (today - 27, 3 days), and our 24-hour day will have to slow down to match this: day will be longer than 47 times in 50 billion years. By the time the Earth and the Moon will become tidally locked, that is, the moon will always appear in the same place in the sky.
Since the formation of stars continues, dying stars will dump its fuel into interstellar space and failed stars will merge together. In this case, the amount of material for making stars will be limited. Even the most long-lived stars would be some 100 trillion years (10 14), and after a quadrillion years (10 15) star formation will dry up completely. Only accidental collisions or mergers between failed stars, or their remnants will highlight our galaxy; in the rest of the process is about to cast her in the cold and darkness. Finally, the white dwarf stars will turn black when cool and emit their energy. Yes, it takes a long time (about 10 16 s), is a million times greater than the current age of the universe. Atoms will still be, but the temperature is just above absolute zero. That's when the night sky is really dark and black, without any visible light because all the stars will cease to exist. In any case, in our local group of galaxies.
How long it would take our black dwarf (who was once our Sun), to meet the other, to merge with it and revive it? Between us, Andromeda, and the rest of the local group of about a trillion stars and stellar remains. In this chaotic system of ordinary stars can the system for a long time with nothing and no one to face, but because we have the time. 10 21 s black dwarf at the center of our solar system, random encounter with another black dwarf, breed type Ia supernova explosion and destroy what is left of our solar system.
This will be the ultimate fate of many stars in our local group, but not all, and even, perhaps, not ours. There is another process that is more efficient and therefore more likely to have: the gravitational ejection of the local group as a result of the forced relaxation process. If there are several bodies in the chaotic gravitational orbit, one of them is thrown out once, leaving the others more closely related. This occurs in globular clusters over time and explains why they are so compact, and why there are so many old stars merged together in the nuclei of these ancient relics.
Gravity emission occurs about 100 times more likely to accidentally merger, and hence our star and the rest related to the planet is likely to be thrown into the abyss of empty space is already approximately 10 19 years. But nothing lasts forever, even space. Each orbit - even gravitational orbits in the general theory of relativity - slowly decay over time. It may take a very long time, perhaps 10 150 years, but eventually the orbit of the Earth will collapse and it will rush in a spiral to the central mass of our solar system. This is our destiny, if we throw.
But if we remain in a giant galaxy, which was turned Mlekomeda, we are not destined to be a black hole in the center of the galaxy. To make this happen, it takes 10 200 years, but black holes many do not live. They slowly evaporate in the form of Hawking radiation. Due to this degradation, even the most massive black holes in the universe will live no more than 10 100 years, and the solar mass black hole - some 10 67 years.
After the collapse of the black hole will be only dark matter, which means that the earth will rush to the black dwarf, who was once our sun. Regardless of how many times our world could be, and it was in a fire, our ultimate destiny - to freeze in cold, empty universe. All will pass. And this, too.