10 of the most amazing of the exoplanets discovered
Space agency NASA continues daily scanning of our galaxy in search of new planets and systems, scattered in the vast expanses of space. Mankind has sent many probes into space, from "Voyager" and ending with "Juno." And they all share a common goal - the study of the solar system and what is beyond.
Perhaps the most effective tool to search for extrasolar planets at the moment is a space observatory "Kepler". Probably, you have already mentioned that the majority of the worlds discovered are called it in his honor.
Although every year we have a lot to find extrasolar planets, most of these worlds are lifeless boulders located in remote and unexplored star. But it turns out even among them there are so unusual instances that even the most hardened astrophysicists sometimes forced to scratch their heads. Please find dozens of the most spectacular. Not necks and exoplanets, of course.
Frozen Orb. Planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb
OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb - this ice planet, located 13 000 light-years from the solar system. The temperature on the surface may vary from -220 to -186 degrees Celsius, why it often is called "ice ball".
A light-year - a relative measure of the distance that is required to overcome if the move with the speed of light for the whole year. The speed of light, in turn, is approximately 300 000 kilometers per second, or more than one billion kilometers per hour. In other words, if we want to look at this ball of ice in person, we have to fly to him for a long time and at a very high speed.
Currently, the fastest of the famous man-made objects in space is a space probe "New Horizons", sent to explore the planet Pluto, its moons, as well as objects of the Kuiper Belt in 2006. His speed is a little more than 58 000 kilometers per hour, which is much lower than the speed of light. This is all to the fact that we do not yet technologies that would visit a nearby system, even if it is at a distance of several light years. So we use the long-range observation technology to detect and identify some of the characteristics of distant exoplanets and their atmospheres. The same OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb was detected using microlensing method - when the planet passed its star, there was a short-term decrease in its brightness. Scientists believe that the ice planet OGLE-2016-BLG-1195Lb consists of water. The news is definitely great, but we are unlikely to take advantage of this water in the near future. Guessing, of course, can be infinite, but who knows, maybe this planet as a source of fresh water can be used highly developed and technologically advanced alien civilization.
Hell in the flesh. Planet KELT-9b
KELT-9b - is among the hottest extrasolar planet ever discovered. It is so hot that it literally kill herself, burning their mass. It is 650 light-years away and constantly rotated by one side to its star.
As a gas giant, it is about three times larger than our Jupiter while its surface temperature is 4315 degrees Celsius. This is more than the majority of stars known, and almost as hot as the surface of the Sun, which burns at a temperature of 5505 degrees Celsius.
After a few million years, KELT-9b is completely burnt out, and then completely disappear, leaving only the lone star next to it.
Water World. The planet GJ 1214b
The planet GJ 1214b is a huge "water world", three times the size of our Earth, and is located about 42 light-years from our solar system. All available water on Earth is only 0, 05 percent the mass of our planet, while water from GJ 1214b so that its weight is 10 percent of the total mass of the planet.
Scientists suggest that GJ 1214b has the ocean, whose depth can be up to 1,600 kilometers. For comparison, the deepest point on Earth, Mariana Trench, goes down only 11 kilometers.
We explored only about 5 percent of the area of our oceans and have already managed to discover countless living beings, whose existence is not even suspected. Just imagine how many deep-sea horror may be hiding under a layer of the oceans GJ 1214b!
Planet PSR J1719-1438 b. The best friend of the girls
The planet PSR J1719-1438 b represents a giant pure diamond. In the literal sense of the word. The diameter of the carbon of the planet is about five times the diameter of Earth. It is situated at 4000 light-years from the solar system. Due to the very powerful force of gravity and the pressure exerted by the planet turned into a giant diamond.
This exoplanet orbits the millisecond pulsar PSR J1719-1438. Astronomers believe that pulsar that once upon a time was a very massive star that later died out, and then turned into a supernova. Very rare millisecond pulsars presumably formed due to the absorption of matter from the companion star located. Ie before the system was also double.
In this case, the companion star is likely a white dwarf spoke, in which our Sun is also one turn. White dwarfs, recall former are massive stars exhausted their hydrogen and unable to sustain fusion reactions within their nuclei.
Millisecond pulsar may have "eaten" all the matter of the white dwarf, leaving to only about 0, 1 mass. As a result, a white dwarf became a truly exotic companion pulsar - a diamond planet.
The planet Kepler-16b. This Tatooine
The planet Kepler-16b in fact is the real analogue of the planet Tatooine from kinovselennoy "Star Wars." Such a title she was given to a greater extent because Kepler-16b is one of the few exoplanets found orbiting a double star system.
Kepler-16b mass approximately 105 times greater than the earth, and wherein the radius of 8, 5 times larger than that of the planet. The atmosphere of the world in increasingly consists of hydrogen, methane and a small amount of helium. Located about 200 light-years away, Kepler-16b completes an orbit around its two stars for every 627 of our earthly days. Despite the fact that the planet looks like Tatooine, Kepler-16b, unlike the latter, can not sustain life. Suppose that even the Droid can not find there.
The planet Kepler-10b. Scorched the world
The planet Kepler-10b is the smallest among the detected exoplanets, and the researchers suggest that its entire surface is covered with oceans of molten lava. Located approximately 560 light years from Earth, the planet Kepler-10b is the first rocky planet discovered outside our solar system, is actually giving humanity the opportunity to take the first step on the way to the future of space exploration.
The surface temperature of Kepler-10b is heated to 1400 degrees Celsius. As a result of this situated therein literally rock melts, filling extensive areas and forming a veritable ocean of molten lava. Planet has a very high structural density, so there is an assumption that Kepler-10b contains a large amount of iron that adds hot lava a brighter red shade.
Dark Planet. TrES-2b
TrES-2b is the darkest ever discovered exoplanets, as it reflects less than 1 percent of the star's light that reaches it. This makes it blacker than coal or black acrylic paint. It is really a miracle that we found this planet, because it hides in the darkness of space pohlesche of a ninja. By the way, this raises the question: how many exoplanets we might have missed, if there are such as TrES-2b?
Our hero is located about 750 light-years from the solar system. Its atmosphere consists of vaporized sodium, potassium, and titanium oxide. According to astronomers, this is why the planet reflects so little light, but the final answer to the mystery of why the planet is so dark, so far not been found, and perhaps never will. Who knows, maybe in the TrES-2b lives any intelligent civilization, but we talked about this will never know. It is very dark planet.
HD 189733b. Planet with a rain of glass
Perhaps one of the most interesting exoplanets in this list is HD 189733b, located 63 light-years away. The fact that it is raining. Rain of glass. Sideways. You read that right. Wind this infernal exoplanet can reach 8700 kilometers per hour, so produced with concentrated atmosphere of the silica falling particles from the hot glass, without having to drop onto the surface, chased horizontally in opposite directions, cutting everything in its path, after which still fall to surface.
Just imagine getting stuck on a planet in a storm!
55 Cancri e. Planet with a strange water
The planet 55 Cancri e is located in the tidal capture, so one of its side constantly turned to the mother star. Due to this water on its surface may be in the supercritical state - and at the same time liquid in the form of gas. The planet is about 25 times closer to the star than Mercury is to our sun, and completes an orbit around its star every 18 hours. It's very fast.
Weight 55 Cancri e is about 7, 8 times more than the Earth's, and its radius is approximately 2 times greater than that of our planet.
CoRoT-7b. Planet with a stone in snow
CoRoT-7b - a truly bizarre planet, because it is snowing from stones!
Like many other exoplanet, CoRoT-7b is located in the tidal capture of its star. The temperature on the surface side facing the star, is 2200 degrees Celsius, at the same time on the side which is turned away from the star, the average temperature is typically -210 degrees Celsius.
Lava on the illuminated side is heated so that the resulting evaporated like water on our planet. This creates a massive stone clouds that after condense on relatively cooler side and as a result fall on a surface in the form of conglomerations. If we could withstand extreme temperatures on this planet, the spectacle would be opened, and the truth is quite amusing.