10 nasty facts about space travel

The idea of ​​traveling into space seem attractive. Many of us dream of becoming astronauts - or even the first people on Mars, who in his childhood, and some still. Who would not want to reach for the stars? And yet there are a few things that can cause us to reconsider, or at least think about it. It turns out that the space is not only difficult and uncomfortable, it is also unpleasant. Before you ten nasty facts about space travel, which you may have to prepare well.

10 nasty facts about space travel

NASA's does not know what to do with the astronauts who died in the space

10 nasty facts about space travel

At NASA no clear plans as to what to do with the bodies of astronauts who die in space. In fact, NASA does not expect that the astronauts could die in space, so do not indicate how to act in case of death of a colleague. But what would happen if an astronaut would die in space? After all, it is quite possible, especially in the case of long-term missions, such as Mars.

One option - to send the body into space. But this is not an option, because the UN prohibits dumping (including the body) in the space because of fears that he may face a spacecraft or contaminate other planets. Another option - keep the body inside the space ship and burn on his return to Earth. Again, this is not an option: it could endanger the lives of other astronauts. The latter option is, if people ever colonize Mars, the body can be used as fertilizer. However, the question remains whether people really can be a good fertilizer.

NASA is currently working with a funeral company Promesse, which develops Body Back. The corpse will be sealed in an airtight sleeping bag and attached to the outside of the spacecraft, where it will be affected by the cold of space. The body is frozen, subjected to vibrations and split into many small particles as vehicle movement through space. By the time of the return to Earth of the astronaut's body will remain just a tiny speck of dust.

Astronauts drink recycled urine

10 nasty facts about space travel

Access to fresh fresh water in space can be problematic. American astronauts on the International Space Station get most of the water by recycling and recovery in the system shown in 2009. As the name implies, the water recovery system allows the astronauts to recover most of the liquid which they lose in the form of sweat and urine, while shaving or making coffee.

American astronauts do not just recycle his own urine. They also utilize the urine of astronauts, because the Russians refused to drink this water. According to Carter Lane, on the water subsystem manager for the ISS, recycled water to taste no different from bottled.

The astronauts lose muscle and bone mass and premature aging

10 nasty facts about space travel

microgravity astronauts in space lead to premature aging. The skin ages faster, gets thinner and drier starts zudit. Bones and muscles also become weak. Astronauts lose muscle mass 1% and 2% of bone mass every month spent in space. Four to six months on the International Space Station loss is about 11% the mass of the femur.

Even the arteries affected. They become more rigid, threatening heart attacks and strokes in astronauts. Canadian Robert Thirsk was suffering from weakness, brittle bones, and problems with balance, spending six months in space. He said that on his return to Earth felt like an old man. Premature aging is now regarded as one of the side effects of space travel. And from him not to hide, but the astronauts can reduce the effect of practicing several hours a day.

Space travel can make barren

10 nasty facts about space travel

There is the assumption that long-term space missions do astronauts fruitless. In one experiment, male rats were suspended above the floor for six weeks, simulating weightlessness space, resulting in their testes decreased as the number of sperm infertility dictating effective manner. Female rats were suffering from similar or even worse fate when they were sent into space. Rat ovaries stop working after 15 days. By the time of the return to Earth the gene responsible for the production of estrogen, works hard, and the cells that produce eggs died.

Space travel has also been associated with loss of libido. In one experiment, two male and five female mice, which were sent into space refused mate. However, some scholars insist that the space has nothing to do with libido or infertility. Egg fish and frogs, sent into space, able to fertilize, although offspring frogs left in the tadpole stage. Male astronauts also beget children to their wives after a few days after returning to Earth.

With women a similar situation. They also became pregnant shortly after returning from space missions, although they had a higher chance of a miscarriage. The impact of space travel on the reproduction remains controversial, and for obvious reasons we study very hard. NASA gave up trying to count the number of sperm cells in astronauts returning from space, for reasons of confidentiality.

The majority of astronauts suffer from space in the

10 nasty facts about space travel

Despite the advances in space exploration "space sickness" is NASA head pain. More than half of all astronauts sent into space, faced with nausea, headache, vomiting and general discomfort. All this causes space sickness, also called space adaptation syndrome. From well-known astronauts faced with space sickness, it can be called Jake Garnier, who felt symptoms before flying away from Earth. When he returned, he could barely walk. Space sickness Garna flowed so hard that his name became an informal scale for measuring the degree of the disease. Astronauts assess the severity of their suffering phrases like "one Garni", "garni two", "three garni" and so on. While NASA looks for solution to the question of space sickness, the forces of agency engineers had created an early warning device if the astronauts get sick in space.

All the astronauts wear diapers

10 nasty facts about space travel

NASA something to watch out for in the design of the first suit. It turned out, scientists have forgotten that astronauts may need to go to the bathroom in the suit. This omission led to what Alan Shepard, the first American in space, went right under him, staying in a spacesuit. And it happened only after the resolution, as NASA scientists have feared that the urine can cause a short circuit electrical components of the suit.

To prevent such scenarios in future missions, NASA invented a device of the type of condom that the astronauts wore the suit entirely. For obvious reasons, when the space left American women in the 1970s, they had problems, so the agency had to develop a system for the distribution of urine and feces, called DACT. DACT used both sexes, although doing it specifically for women.

In 1988, NASA replaced the DACT to MAG - in fact, diapers for adults, like the shorts. Each astronaut give three of MAG on each mission. One worn during the spacewalk, one on his return, and the third - just in case.

In the space would have to masturbate

10 nasty facts about space travel

Astronauts are always at risk of getting inflammation of the urinary tract and other illnesses while in space. Men are likely to prove with prostatitis, and women get urinary tract infection. From 1981 to 1998, 23 of 508, NASA's astronauts, sent into space, faced problems with urination. Although this statistic suggests that urinary diseases affect only a small percentage of the astronauts will not turn a blind eye to these problems, as they can lead to the termination of space flight. The Soviet Union learned this in the strongest terms, as in 1985, cosmonaut Vladimir Vasyutino had to return to Earth after only two months of the scheduled six. Vladimir racked up strong prostate, which causes fever, vomiting and severe pain when urinating.

Marjorie Jenkins, a medical advisor to NASA, made it clear that the prostate can be one of the consequences of reducing the ejaculation. When men do not ejaculate frequently enough, bacteria can build up in the prostate gland and cause infection.

It is not known whether the astronauts have to masturbate during space flight, but this does not mean that they did not do. One Russian astronaut once said that "having sex with his hand," being in space. In 2012, astronaut Ron Garan said on Reddit, that astronauts really get some "free time" to the International Space Station. When asked to explain, he said: "I can only speak for myself, but we're professionals."

There is no urgent assistance in space

10 nasty facts about space travel

At NASA, there is no strange in the medical equipment on board a spacecraft, or even the ISS. All that is, is a medication and basic first aid equipment. Astronauts do not cure anything except patch and plantain with painkillers. What do you do when an astronaut will be very little or no need surgery?

When this happens, NASA requires astronaut sent back to Earth. At NASA has an agreement with Roskosmos on which emergency "Union" launched to save the sick astronauts to the ISS. In addition to patients with astronauts, the rocket will return with two astronauts since needed a crew of three. Such a trip would cost hundreds of millions of dollars and seriously ill astronaut who may not even survive the journey. If NASA goes through all this only to pick up a sick astronaut with the "nearest" ISS that will help when needed astronaut on the way to Mars? National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is funding several agencies, creating a unique medical equipment that can cope with serious illnesses such as heart attacks, and appendicitis in space.

Drugs in space are less effective

10 nasty facts about space travel

We have just mentioned that the medical assistance available to astronauts in space qualifies as first aid. But even with all this, most of the available drugs are not as effective as in the world. In one study, researchers filled the first eight kits 35 different drugs, including sleeping pills and antibiotics. Four kits were sent to the International Space Station, and the other four were stored in a special chamber in the Space Center. Johnson in Houston.

After 28 months of drugs sent to the ISS, it was less effective than those that were stored at the space center. Six drugs, as it turned out, also faded or discolored. Scientists believe that the loss of efficiency associated with excess vibration and radiation, which drugs face in outer space. Now NASA has reduced the seriousness of this problem, delivering fresh drugs to the ISS every six months. In the future, astronauts will be given all the necessary ingredients for the production of medicines in space.

Poisoning with carbon dioxide can be a problem

10 nasty facts about space travel

concentration of carbon dioxide increased the ISS. On Earth concentration of CO 2 is about 0, 3 mm Hg. v., but can be up to 6 mm Hg. Art. ISS. Adverse side effects such as headaches, irritation, and sleep problems, which have become the norm among astronauts - are some effects of increased carbon dioxide concentration. In fact, most astronauts complaining of headaches in the beginning of their missions. Unlike the earth, where carbon dioxide leaving the body, is scattered in the air exhaled by astronauts gas forms a cloud over their heads. On board the ISS there are special fans that blow the clouds and scatter on the project. But the gas concentration is still higher than recommended. Hopefully, by the time of sending humans to Mars solution will be found.