We come in large numbers here! Mars is not Earth's closest neighbor
An international team of scientists was able to ascertain the reasons for the profound differences in the composition of the Earth and Mars. The fact that the Red Planet is not always located where it is now located, and much farther from our planet - in the main asteroid belt. After its formation, it has moved deeper into the solar system. This is what explains the strangeness in its composition. About their research and findings to scientists shared in an article published in the journal Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
After numerous tests of Martian soil planted on the Red Planet devices, as well as the detection and investigation on Earth meteorites of Martian origin scientists have any questions with regards to why Mars in its composition is so different from our planet. For example, Mars silicates density significantly inferior terrestrial counterparts. If the planets were formed side by side, in theory and composition must be very close to each other? Note the right, but is a very different picture in practice.
To solve this puzzle, the researchers conducted a simulation of the formation of both planets according to the hypothesis of the Great maneuvering. Today, it offers the most convincing explanation for the oddities observed in the Solar System. For example, why the mass of Venus and Earth is many times larger than Mars. According to the hypothesis, gas giants Saturn and Jupiter during gravitational interaction with each other and with the first sun moved closer to our luminary (until today orbit Mars) and then returned to their seats. As a result, they are like a vacuum cleaner smoothed out its gravitational forces of the area of the Main asteroid belt from protoplanetary bodies, effectively blocking the possibility of the formation of new planets out there. In this process, the gas giants are also partly captured their gravitational influence, and the neighborhood of the original Martian orbit, which eventually led to the fact that the mass of the red planet is now nine times less than the Earth's. In some cases, the simulations showed that Mars could have been formed, not where it is now, at about 1, 5 times farther from the sun - that is, somewhere in the main asteroid belt. In this case, it would be explained by the smaller, compared to Earth's density. Due to the "gravity tractor" in the form of travel through Jupiter times more dense and heavy protoplanetary bodies were stretched out in the internal boundaries of the system from there. As a result, at a fraction of the time a young red planet just got a part-forming material in the form of the lighter silicates.
Due to the gravitational instability in the region by the constant celebrations up and down the large planets Mars eventually moved closer to the sun. This, incidentally, may explain why young Mars was warmer than this, and why it might be more water than it is now. It is known that the asteroid belt is farther from the Sun, therefore, water ice evaporates in the region under the influence of sunlight is much slower. Initially, the planet was more water and atmospheric gases contained more. The bulk of its water reserves and gas Mars lost already after moved closer to the sun. This played an important role the powerful solar wind and lack of self-protective magnetic field of the planet.