It created the most detailed at the moment map of the Milky Way

The European Space Agency (ESA) introduced a new highly accurate and highly detailed map of the Milky Way, which shows the exact location and brightness of almost 1, 7 billion stars. This is by far the most complete star catalog, which managed to create through the Gaia space telescope.

It created the most detailed at the moment map of the Milky Way

Gaia The device was created by ESA and launched in late 2013. The tool works in the optical range and measure the proper motions of the stars (stars bias on the celestial sphere, which are caused by their motion relative to the solar system), as well as parallax - changes the star coordinates, which is associated with the change of position of the observer from the Earth's rotation around the sun. The combination of these data makes it possible to know the distance to the light and see how they are distributed in our galaxy.

It created the most detailed at the moment map of the Milky Way

360-degree panorama of the parallax of stars, sees it Gaia

As a result, the first 14 months of observation, scientists received the first data set on the basis of which the highly detailed map of our galaxy was created in 2016, takes into account features of more than 1, 1 billion stars. The second data set covers the observation period from July 2014 to May 2016 and already contains 1, 3 billion stars. In addition, Gaia measured the brightness and color of 1, 7 billion stars, as well as changes of these characteristics for the 500 million other facilities. The new catalog also includes data and a temperature of about 100 million stars.

It created the most detailed at the moment map of the Milky Way

Map of the radial velocities of stars. Red shows the objects moving away from the sun, and blue - approaching him

Approximately radial velocities were measured for 7 million stars, which allowed to know they are moving relative to the Milky Way's center for some paths. This information is needed to find out the weight of our own galaxy, as well as the distribution of (and perhaps properties) of dark matter, which, according to the assumptions of scientists, along with the dark energy makes up 95 percent of the mass of our universe.

It created the most detailed at the moment map of the Milky Way

Gaia research objects. From left to right: the objects of the solar system, nearby stars, the Milky Way and its bridge, the galactic halo globular clusters, neighboring galaxies, distant quasars

The researchers noticed that in the motion of stars that revolve about the same rate, there are some features. In future work, scientists are going to check whether they are related to disturbances, which creates a bridge in the center of the Milky Way, which is a dense region of stars and interstellar gas, or it has something to do with the previous merger of the Milky Way to the other, smaller galaxies. Gaia telescope and determine the orbit of the globular clusters 75 and 12 dwarf galaxies that orbit the Milky Way. Telescope work and the data obtained allow us to study the past of our galaxy and its surroundings. For example, the distribution of dark matter and gravitational influence of other objects. Moreover, the new data comprises a release position 14,099 of known objects in the solar system, the bulk of which are asteroids.