The requirements for the preparation of the Russian expedition to the moon
Experience in training of Soviet cosmonauts, as well as the flights of the American mission "Apollo" helped in defining the requirements for the preparation of the moon members of the Russian expedition, reports RIA "Novosti" with reference to the latest issue of the scientific journal "manned space mission", published by the Russian Training Center named after astronauts Gagarin.
The experts note that in the preparation of missions to the Moon is required to take into account all the conditions of the astronauts on the surface. Among the features: a reduced level of gravity (approximately 6 times less than in the world), the absence of an atmosphere, large diurnal temperature changes on the surface (fluctuations from minus 200 to plus 130 degrees Celsius). The difficulty the astronauts will deliver a sufficiently closely spaced visible horizon. For instance, the astronaut growth 1, 75 meters will see on the horizon the moon at a distance of 2 kilometers of 47 to 4, 7 kilometers to the Earth. Certain difficulties will create the difficult terrain, adheres to all subjects moondust, the delay of radio signal sent from Earth to the Moon and back. Among threats crew scientists isolated as a radiation hazard and an opportunity to meteor.
At the same time some of the working conditions on the lunar surface will be quite familiar both by astronauts and specialists who will conduct their training. We are talking about the parameters, similar to conditions spacewalk from the International Space Station. Among them: the lack of atmosphere, significant temperature fluctuations, solar radiation. Therefore, in the training of astronauts to work on the lunar surface a special simulation of these conditions is not required, experts say.
"Based on the analysis of the features of the work and the main tasks of extravehicular activity of astronauts on the lunar surface, a list of standard operations to train astronauts. Identified the technical means to train astronauts to work in conditions of lunar gravity in ground conditions and the possibility of working out the estimate of typical operations at these facilities, "- says the publication.
The main difference between the work on the lunar surface on spacewalks from the ISS will gravity.
"The presence of gravity causes the way to move the astronauts on the feet (foot movement) or move to the use of vehicles (rovers). In this case, involves the movement of the astronauts at a considerable distance from the moon of landing module and a lunar base on routes having a complex topography and various properties of the soil (lunar regolith) ", - reported in the article.
Special attention, according to experts, in the simulation of working conditions of astronauts on the moon must be given to the peculiarities of the soil near the crater and on their slopes, as well as a strong bias surface.
"You also need to take into account the considerable duration of the lunar day (day and night), difficulty visually determine the distance and the delay of radio signal from Earth", - experts warn.
To compile the requirements for training astronauts to fly to the moon CPC specialists used accumulated by Russia and the United States experience in conducting spacewalks from near-earth space stations and ships, as well as the data collected during the preparation of the Soviet lunar program and implemented by the US manned space missions.
"Analysis of the six missions with landing on the moon on the program" Apollo "made by NASA astronauts from 1969 through 1972, as well as a number of field research allowed to determine the effect of lunar gravity on energy consumption and efficiency of man on the moon's surface. American astronauts have noted that the move was easier than in land-based simulators that simulate lunar gravity "on the lunar surface - experts comment.
When you stay on the moon, astronauts have tried different ways of transportation: walking, jumps walking and jogging skipping. It turned out that the best way to travel is the usual walking, where we had all the time to lean forward to compensate for the deviation of the body back under the weight of a backpack life support system.
Similar estimates main ways movement on the lunar surface were obtained domestic experts during ground tests and studies to prepare Soviet astronauts to land on the Moon. According to these estimates, the move will affect topography and soil properties. From them will depend on the posture and method of travel. For example, specialists have found that astronauts due to the nature and gravity of the lunar soil will have to take into account the inertia of the movement.
"In the course of the training will be necessary to provide the ability to move the astronaut on a complex microrelief terrain over long distances on foot or by Lunokhod, as well as the availability of equipment and instrument layouts (with a weight of 1/6 of the earth), used in the performance of their tasks" .
Experts warn that in preparation for work on the lunar surface there is not an easy task for modeling the conditions of reduced gravity on Earth. For it is proposed to use the lunar ranges, special trainers and buoyancy in which to work in the open space is now trained crews.
Astronauts training must be carried out using models moon suits, providing a more accurate reproduction restriction can (weight, dimensions, climate conditions, mobility and elasticity of sleeves and trouser-legs, tactile gloves sensitivity).
Experts note that the use of space suits designed to work in open space, it is not suitable for training to work on the moon, so to prepare the members of the Russian expedition will need to establish themselves moon suits and specialized training models.
Recall that a cooperation agreement between the state corporation "Roscosmos" and NASA in the field of research and development of outer space, including an agreement on cooperation in the exploration of the Moon, was signed in September 2017. Russian Federal Space Program for 2016-2025 years, also provides for the creation of the necessary groundwork for a full exploration of the Moon after 2025 and the implementation of the 2030 landing there first Russian cosmonaut.