Physicists have finally found 'missing' baryons Universe
Scientists from the University of Colorado at Boulder found the last reservoir of ordinary matter in the universe is hiding. Out of the ordinary (baryonic) matter is made all existing physical objects, from the stars to black holes. But until now astrophysicists were able to detect only two-thirds of this substance that was created, according to the theorists, in the process of the Big Bang.
A new study by an international team of scientists has found the missing third, finding it in the space between the galaxies. This missing matter exists in the form of oxygen gas at about 1 million degrees Celsius, said co-author Michael Shull.
Needless to say that this finding - a huge step for astrophysicists. "This is one of the key pillars of the Big Bang theory test - definition of baryon ratio of hydrogen, helium, and the rest of the periodic table," said Shull. The study was published June 20 in the journal Nature.
Scientists are quite good, where most of the ordinary matter in the universe - not to be confused with dark matter, which scientists have not yet found: about 10% is in galaxies, another 60% - in the diffuse clouds of gas lying between the galaxies. In 2012, Shull and his colleagues predict that the missing baryons 30% is likely to be in the form of web space, which is called the warm-hot intergalactic medium.
To find the missing atoms in this region between galaxies, an international team of scientists has sent a series of satellites in the quasar 1ES 1553 - a black hole in the center of the galaxy, which absorbs and emits huge amounts of gas. "It is a bright space beacon," said Shull.
Scientists can gather a lot of information by recording the radiation of the quasar passes through the space like sailors, watching a beacon through the fog. First, the researchers used a Cosmic Origin Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, to understand where we could find the missing baryons. Then they found the baryons using the XMM-Newton satellite of the European Space Agency.
The study failed to find the signature of highly ionized oxygen gas lying between the quasar and our solar system - and at a high enough density, if extrapolated to the entire universe, it can be up to 30% of normal matter.
"We found the missing baryons," said Shull.