On Earth, are pieces of Mars. They were here?

When the planets revolve around the sun, separated by a good distance, we think that they are not in contact and exchanging material. The solar system can be a cruel place where the falling asteroids and comets fly, but the planet itself seems too big and massive, to somehow be involved. When high energy shocks affect your planet, worse, what they can do - make a hole, leaving a crater and cover the world of dust and debris.

On Earth, are pieces of Mars. They were here?

But sometimes, if the blow is strong enough, it can throw away all the debris into space. Many of the moons in our solar system, including Earth's satellite, Pluto and Mars - have been created from the merger of the debris after the giant impact. Some of the debris fell back to the planet, the other remaining matter was ejected from the planetary system as a whole.

if the stone can get from one planet to another?

In theory, but, with one planet material can be transferred to another.

In practice, we know that this is so. Pieces of Mars found on Earth, and the new fall on our world every few years.

The science of meteorites is beautiful and interesting. More than 61,000 pieces of rocks of extraterrestrial origin have been found on Earth. Solar System - a varied and intricate place, and every body that ever fell on her or from which we take samples, something different from the others. Rocks on the surface of Venus differ from those found on asteroids, comets, Mars and Earth. In fact, they all differ in composition with each other, as well as rock, which we have seen on a variety of satellites, which are visited, such as the Titan satellite of Saturn.

On Earth, are pieces of Mars. They were here?

The only breed that, as far as we know, have a similar structure - it rocks of the Earth and the Moon. The similarity between terrestrial and lunar rock samples speaks in favor of the giant impact early in the history of the solar system, which has led to the appearance of the moon. In the case of any rock on Earth, regardless of its origin, we can analyze what elements of the periodic table it is, and what the ratio of isotopes of these elements.

For example, one of the most remarkable evidence that a big extinction event 65 million years ago, began after the fall of the asteroid, a layer of ash, which are found throughout the world, as the ashes of that time contain 10 times as much iridium in density than any rocks on Earth . For asteroids this is quite natural, therefore, we regard them as the basic premise of the extinction of the dinosaurs and mammals heyday.

On Earth, are pieces of Mars. They were here?

The objects fall to Earth, however, are in a separate category. Instead of wandering in space, they travel through the solar system and encounter with our world, and many of them fall to the surface and leave traces. These meteorites are of various types. They have different densities, different compositions of elements and different geological features inside. Most meteorites stony and comprise small round particles composed largely of silicon inside. These types of meteorites known as chondrites, and they account for 86% of all meteorites. Another 8% stony too, but without these particles molten silicon inside: achondrites. Another 6% - iron meteorites, a mixture of stone and metal.

On Earth, are pieces of Mars. They were here?

Although it includes all the meteorites that we've ever found, they are not the same or even typical. Some of them even strange. We should also three different types:

Shergottity: volcanic rocks rich in magnesium, and iron, with different sizes of crystals and mineral content inside and, apparently, crystallized recently, perhaps only 180 million years ago. Nahlity: These are much older, formed between 1, 3 and 1, 4 billion years ago, is also in the process of volcanic activity. They are rich in mineral augite and contain evidence that liquid water flooded them about 620 million years ago.

Shassinity: these meteorites are almost exclusively made of mineral olivine with the addition of pyroxene and feldspar oxides. They contain noble gases, which are different from the composition of the Martian atmosphere, which indicates their origin in the mantle of the planet.

All three of these types differ markedly from other meteorites found on Earth, but are elemental and isotopic community. The ratio of oxygen isotopes are particularly different from the ratio in other meteorites, and they exhibit an earlier time of formation. For a long time scientists have suspected that they may have a similar origin, which distinguishes them from the more typical meteorites.

In 1976, the landers "Viking" brought us information about a surface of Mars, including information about the Martian atmosphere and rocks found on the surface. The similarities were striking, and many have reflected on the fact that all these three types of meteorites are from Mars. But the real proof came in 1983, when the glass formed during the fall of one of these shergottitov found sharpened gases and these gases are consistent with those that found "Viking" on Mars.

In 2018, there were 207 known Martian meteorites. Based on radiometric dating, we can conclude that the meteorites are from Mars, very young: only 3 of those are from Mars, over 1, 4 billion years; most were formed hundreds of millions of years ago. In addition, we can say how long they traveled, based on their contacts with cosmic rays, the duration of which was 000 years from 730 to 20 million years. In any case, the formation of these meteorites on Mars took place relatively recently, in terms of geology, and when they hit the Earth, mammals have dominated the planet.

No need to be the size of the asteroid that killed the dinosaurs, to throw stuff off the planet, and these attacks evidently took place often enough to transfer material from one planet to the other in the solar system. About 0, 3% of all meteorites that fell to Earth, have Martian origin that gives food speculation on the origin of life - perhaps on earth it came from Mars or other planets in the solar system. People have not yet been to another planet, but through natural processes other planets regularly visit us. Pieces of Mars are all over the planet. If you try to, perhaps, find a piece of land on other planets, which we have yet to visit.

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