To live longer, we need to understand why age
Health jet today, in retrospect, bureaucratic and expensive. This nursing, rather than public health. However, this is destined to change. Scientists who are seriously concerned with aging, life extension and health care, are working to change the whole system, which holds $ 3 trillion. Let's see what is aging and how emerging technologies and initiatives will work to combat the evils of nine human health.
Why health care system does not work
The health care system in the world - will not take individual countries - is broken and does not work. That's why:
- Doctors spend 210 billion dollars a year on treatments that are not based on the needs of patients, and in the fear of liability.
- The Americans spend an average of 8915 dollars on health care - more than in any other country on Earth.
- Drugs, prescription, cost about 50% more expensive in the US than in other industrialized countries.
- At the current rates, by 2025, nearly 25% of the US GDP will be spent on health care.
- 12 years and 359 million dollars, on average, it takes to deliver a new drug from the laboratory to the patient.
- Only 5 of 5,000 of these new drugs are tested on humans. Of these, only 1 out of 5 is approved for human use.
We live in the most healthy time in the history of mankind
With all this, when compared with other periods of human existence, nothing to complain about. But the problems concern the whole world, and not a single country, but significant progress has been made.
- The countries with the lowest life expectancy still have a higher expectation of life than those with the highest expectations in 1800.
- In 1841, 5-year-old child had a life expectancy of 55 years. Today, 5-year-old can expect to live in '82 - this is 27 years older.
- The life of people is increasing. In 1845, a newborn could expect to live to 40 years. But at 70 years of age could live only to 79 years. Today, people of all ages can expect to live 81-86 years.
- 100 years ago, 1 in 3 children die before reaching 5 years of age. In 2015, the infant mortality rate dropped to 4, 3%.
- The death rate from cancer for the last 25 years has fallen by 27%.
Nine mechanisms of aging
Life expectancy, health and aging are closely linked.
With better health, we are better able to treat some of the major causes of death, affecting the duration of our lives.
By learning how to treat the disease, we are bound to understand better that the first cause of these diseases, and it is directly related to the question of why we age.
Below you will find nine distinctive signs of aging.
genomic instability. As we age, the environment and the usual cellular processes are detrimental to our genes. Flying at high altitudes, e.g., we subjected to elevated radiation or free radicals. These damages are aggravated for life and are known to accelerate aging. depletion of telomeres. Each strand of DNA in the body (known as chromosome) closed telomeres. These short DNA fragments, repeated thousands of times, designed to protect most of the chromosomes. Telomeres are shortened by as multiplies our DNA; if the telomeres reach a certain critical length, the cell stops dividing, which leads to increased morbidity.
Epigenetic changes. Over time, environmental factors alter gene expression processes, i.e. how specific DNA sequence is read and implemented by the instructions set.
Loss proteostaza. Over time, different proteins in our bodies cease to develop and function as they should, which leads to various diseases, from cancer to neurological disorders.
Unregulated perception nutrients. nutrient levels in the body can affect a variety of metabolic pathways. Among the affected parts of these pathways have proteins such as IGF-1, mTOR, sirtuins and AMPK. Changing the levels of these proteins affect life expectancy.
Mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria (our cellular power plant) with age lose some performance. Performance degradation leads to excessive fatigue and other symptoms of chronic diseases associated with aging.
Cell aging. As we age, the cells cease to divide and can not be removed from the body. They accumulate and cause severe inflammation. Depletion of stem cells. As we age, our supply of stem cells begins to decrease 100 - 10 000 times in different tissues and organs. Moreover, stem cells are subjected to genetic mutations that reduce the quality and efficiency of the upgrade and reconstruction of the organism.
changes in the intercellular bond. communication mechanisms are used our cells, as the cells are broken by aging, which leads to a decrease in the ability to exchange information between them.
What are the implications?
Over the past 200 years, we saw a lot of medical technologies, contributing to a massive increase in life expectancy.
Exponential technologies such as artificial intelligence, 3D-printing and sensors, as well as the great achievements in the field of genomics, stem cell research, chemistry and many other fields, begin to solve the fundamental problems of why we age.
Just think what we could achieve, with a stock of healthy 30-50 years or even more? Tell us about it in our chat in the telegram.