Presented card fresh nitrogen dioxide emissions into the atmosphere
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), belongs to the general group of nitrogen oxides (NOx), it is a major component of air pollution in urban environments. It is formed by high-temperature combustion. The main anthropogenic (produced by humans) the sources of emissions of harmful substances are gas and coal power plants, as well as public transport. In addition, there are also natural sources of emissions of NO2, for example, forest fires, and lightning, but their role in the general background of the volume of emissions is minimal.
Using satellite imagery and machine learning algorithms company Descartes Labs visualized emissions of nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. Increased concentration of NO2 can encourage acid rain, smog, reduce the rate of revegetation of the planet, as well as a variety of health problems in the population. It is a strong corrosive and irritates the nasal cavity and eyes. At concentrations greater than 150 ppm. It causes bronchitis, and more than 500 ppm. - pulmonary edema, even if the exposure only lasted a few minutes.
The data for the image was obtained using the Sentinel 5P satellite launched in October 2017 to monitor the planet's atmosphere. It is part of a constellation of satellites of the European Space Agency, which are used for Earth observation. In particular, the other satellites are engaged in monitoring the vegetation cover and land use changes in global temperature, and even tracking the cracks in the ice cover of Antarctica. The above map is part of a series of images of the main foci of NO2 in the world, prepared by Descartes Labs in February. According to Tim Wallace, head of the department of graphic design Descarte Labs, for its creation has been used a number of separate images, which were obtained by Sentinel-5P in the period from August to September 2018. For a more accurate and clearer distribution of nitrogen dioxide in the sample on the planet poor quality photographs were excluded, as well as images of regions in cloudy and overcast.
Typically, the nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere is delayed not for a very long time, which eliminates the possibility of wider distribution of emission sites. Therefore, it is obvious that its main emission concentration is close to cities where large numbers of vehicles used. At the same time it is noticeable a single source on the map, Wallace noted, adding that it is about ships and some industrial cities.
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