Chinese lunar rover found on the reverse side of the moon that was looking for
The first mission to the far side of the moon, it seems, found fragments of mineral resources on the moon's surface. Lunokhod "Yuytu 2" deployed spacecraft "Chang'e 4" in January, found soil rich in minerals, which consists of lunar mantle. This research appears in the journal Nature on 16 May. If the origin of the soil is confirmed, we get a glimpse of the early development of the Moon. "Understanding the structure of the lunar mantle - the key to determining how the moon formed and evolved," says Mark Wieczorek, a geophysicist from the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice, France. "We do not have a clear, constant samples of the lunar mantle" of past lunar missions.
What is the Moon?
Hoping to find a gown samples "Chang'e-4" landed in the biggest shock of the moon pool, in the pool South Pole - Aitken. It is believed that the collision that formed the huge swimming pool, it was powerful enough to penetrate the lunar crust and mantle rocks on the bare surface of the satellite. During his first day on the Moon "Yuytu-2" recorded spectra of the light reflected from the lunar soil at two points using a spectrometer in the visible and near-infrared spectra.
When the researchers analyzed the spectra seen very different from the usual materials of the lunar surface, said one of the authors of Liu Dawei, a planetary scientist at the National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. Spectra "Yuytu-2" indicated that prevails in the soil olivine and pyroxene with a low content of calcium, which are believed to be lunar components mantle. At one point, it was about 48% of olivine and pyroxene, 42%; only 10% pyroxene lunar crust made with high calcium content. Another site showed 55% olivine, 38% pyroxene low calcium content and 7% pyroxene with high calcium content.
"Necessary follow-up studies" to confirm that the material is indeed from the mantle, says Daniel Moriarty, lunar geologist at the Center for Space Flight. Goddard in Greenbelt. This is due to the fact that the other materials in the lunar crust, such as plagioclase, can create spectral signatures, resembling olivine.
According planetologist Jay Melosh of Purdue University, "Yuytu-2" could more accurately identify the material of the mantle by studying the spectra of certain rocks, not mineral mixtures in the soil. "It would be much better if we had a sample of the Earth" for laboratory analysis to separate the different mineral components.
Lunokhod "Yuytu-2" will continue to explore the materials on the Moon in preparation for a future mission to return samples to Earth.
The chemical composition of the mantle materials may help to clarify the early history of the moon. Scientists believe that billions of years ago the moon was partially or completely melted. When the moon finally cooled, different density materials are divided into the mantle and crust. We are now at a stage where scientists propose different models of the crystallization process. These models predict different content of olivine and pyroxene in the upper mantle. Samples of lunar interior may help determine which model is best to describe the evolution of the Moon. A more detailed picture of the inside of the moon could also shed light on planetary evolution in general, says planetary scientist Briony Horgan. Unlike the earth, the moon have tectonic plates, which are shuffled material or surface ocean water is drawn into the mantle when the plates slide one under the other. Luna offers a unique view of the inner workings of the planetary body, which is very different from Earth.
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