Why is not the Soviet Union astronauts went to the moon?
The superiority of the Soviet Union over the United States in the space field in front of the historic landing of man on the moon has been undeniable. The Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth orbit satellite, sent a man into space and sent spacecraft in flight around the moon for the first time got the back of the satellite images. On the first satellite of the Earth made a soft landing, too, the Soviet apparatus - "Luna-9". In the end it was a Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov performed the world's first spacewalk of space shuttle. It would seem that the Soviet people had to be the first to land on the moon. But that did not happen. Why did the Soviet Union lost the race to the moon?
Speaking as short as possible, the reason was that the USSR did not have to build any extra heavy missile capable of delivering to the orbit of the Earth spaceship to fly to the orbit of the moon, nor the lander capable then fly to the moon.
As the preparation for the Soviet lunar program?
In 1962 the leader, Nikita Khrushchev, the country signed a decree on the creation of a spacecraft to fly around the Moon and the applications for this launch rocket "Proton" with the upper stage. In 1964, Khrushchev signed a program that the USSR carried out in 1967, circled, and in 1968 - the landing on the moon and return to Earth. A year earlier than it did in the end the Americans.
Form a Soviet lunar crews started in 1966. It was assumed that the crew that will be used for the landing on the moon should consist of two people. One had to go down to the surface of the Moon, the second to be in orbit in the lunar module. Moonlight Soviet program was divided into two phases. In the first exercise was supposed overflew Earth satellite using a booster outputted to space "Proton" Lunar Module A-1.
Ship Scheme A-1
The second step involves planting and returning back. For this going to use giant (height of 105 meters) and the most powerful in the USSR five-stage booster H-1 equipped with thirty total traction motors 4, 6 tons of the rocket itself weighs more than 2700 tons. As the lunar module was planned to use the unit L3.
What is the reasons for the failure of the Soviet lunar program?
The main reasons for the failure of the project of the Soviet lunar program, which cost at prices in 1974 of 4 billion rubles, are called high level of competition between the various Soviet design bureaus, personal animosity between some of its leaders, spraying of funds between CB Korolev and Chelomeya in the initial stages creating a lunar ships and avoiding the use of the rocket engine for the launcher H-1, developed by the most experienced manufacturer in this field KB Glushko.
About this in a recent interview said cosmonaut and twice Hero of the Soviet Union Alexei Leonov:
"Korolev and Glushko - could not and did not want to work together. Their relationship had its problems purely personal nature: Sergei Korolev, for example, knew that Valentin Glushko once wrote him a denunciation, in which he was sentenced to ten years. Coming to freedom Korolev learned about this, but Glushko did not know that he knows it, "- says Leon.
Soviet rocket H-1,
Scheme launcher H-1,
On the conflict Mezhuyev Korolev and Chelomey Leonov said this:
"It's a complicated relationship and competition between Korolev and Chelomey did not go to the benefit of the common cause. They are all currently facing, opposed to each other. Disagreement over the defeat of most of the lunar program. "
That Korolev eventually won the fight in the design and it was his design bureau OKB-1 was commissioned to design a lunar launch vehicle H-1, with which it was planned to bring the Soviet man in the moon's surface.
However, the project of this rocket turned a complete failure. Even during preparation, all four unmanned launch rocket H-1 (1969 to 1972) were unsuccessful. The rocket exploded every time after take-off and climb. Two unsuccessful launch were conducted before the Americans landed on the moon, two - after.
One of the failures of the launch vehicle Soviet H-1,
The problem was in the first stage. The Soviet Union, unlike the United States, there was no test benches to verify all steps as a whole, therefore, to establish exactly what had caused the failure level was impossible.
America better prepared and had more money
Americans from 1960 spent $ 28 billion for the years 1973 to the program "Apollo". The money went to build a rocket "Saturn-5" spacecraft, as well as the construction of the necessary infrastructure for testing. When adjusted for inflation today, this amount would have been 288, $ 1 billion. Good preparation allowed the US to carry out successfully all 13 starts "Apollo" - six of them ended in landing astronauts on the moon.
Comparison of the size of the US missile "Saturn 5" and Soviet H-1 rocket. Between missiles worth human figure
Party leadership of the USSR contributed to the lunar program for substantially less money. And as we move steadily declining development funding, requiring designers and production cost savings.
See also: Most popular myths about the first landing of man on the moon
A very strong blow to the project of the Soviet lunar program and dealt a fatal coincidence. January 14, 1966 at the ordinary medical operation dies, Sergei Korolev. In 1967, he dies at unsuccessful landing a new "Soyuz-1" Vladimir Komarov - the most likely candidate for complex lunar missions. In 1968 in a plane crash killed Yuri Gagarin - the second candidate in the lunar mission.
Appointed in 1974, chief designer of the Soviet space program instead VP Mishin, VP Glushko make a decision (with the consent of their superiors) to terminate the operation of the carrier N-1 and the manned lunar program. He was a principled opponent of flights to the moon and spoke in favor of near-Earth orbital stations for defense purposes.
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