7 the great mysteries of Mars
The ancient Chinese astronomers called Mars "Firestar", and scholars will long "burn" curiosity about some things related to the Red Planet. Even after dozens of spacecraft have been sent to Mars to study, many questions remained unanswered. Learn about the greatest mysteries of Mars, which has yet to be unraveled.
1) Why is Mars two "persons"?
Scientists have been puzzled by the difference between the two sides of Mars for decades. The northern hemisphere of the planet - a smooth and low - this is one of the most smooth and flat beds on the planets of the solar system. Potentially, it could be formed due to the water, which was once splashed on the Martian surface.
At the same time, the southern half of Mars - rough and all indented craters. It is about 4-8 km higher than the northern part. Recent studies suggest that these differences between the southern and northern sides of the planet could be linked to a giant cosmic body, which could once very long time to fall on the surface of Mars.
2) What is the source of methane on Mars?
Methane - the simplest organic molecule - it was first discovered in the atmosphere of Mars spacecraft "Mars Express" of the European Space Agency in 2003. On Earth, a large portion of the methane produced by living organisms, such as cattle, digesting food. It is assumed that the methane is stable in the Martian atmosphere is only 300 years old, but who or what might generate the gas so long ago - remains a mystery.
Yet there are ways to methane production without the participation of living organisms, such as volcanic activity. The new program of the European Space Agency "exomars", which will be launched in 2016, will study the chemical composition of the atmosphere of Mars, scientists have been able to learn more about the Martian methane. 3) Is there liquid water on Mars?
Although a large body of evidence indicates that Mars once had liquid water, if it exists today - remains a mystery. Atmospheric pressure on Mars is very low, approximately 100 times less than the pressure in the world, so is unlikely to liquid water may remain on the surface of Mars. However, the long dark lines that we can see on the surface of Mars, hinting that the salty water streams can flow through them every spring.
4) Were the oceans on Mars?
A large number of Martian missions showed that Mars has many signs that used to be on the surface splashing water. It is very likely that there were oceans, the network of valleys, river deltas and minerals that can form water.
However, current models of early Martian climate can not explain how a planet could exist at such a high temperature, to form liquid water as the sun warms the planet's surface is much weaker. Maybe some of the characteristics of the surface can not be formed with water, wind or other mechanisms? However, everything points to the fact that ancient Mars was still warm, and on its surface could be water, at least on one side. However, some scientists argue that ancient Mars was cold but humid, although this theory still disputed.
5) Is there life on Mars?
The first spacecraft successfully landed on the surface of Mars - NASA's Viking 1 - first tried to uncover the mystery of whether there is life on Mars, but so far the answer is not received. Today, this issue is of concern Mars researchers worldwide. Viking able to detect organic molecules, such as methyl chloride and dichloromethane. However, it later emerged that it was the earth impurities, which were part of the cleaning liquid in the preparation device in the world. The surface of Mars is quite suitable for the emergence of life on it, as far as we know, because there are appropriate conditions: a suitable temperature, radiation, excessive dryness and other factors. It is known many examples when life on Earth appeared even under more severe conditions, for example, in the far north, in the dry soils of Antarctic dry valleys, and in the very dry Atacama Desert in Chile.
Where there is liquid water on Earth - life is everywhere, so scientists believe that if there is water on Mars, there must necessarily be a life. When the scientists answer the question, whether there is life on Mars, they will be able to shed light on a number of other questions that remain unanswered today, for example, may or may not be life originated elsewhere in the universe.
6) Life on Earth came from Mars?
Meteorites that have been discovered in Antarctica, came to our planet from Mars. They broke away from the Red Planet during its collision with other space objects. These meteorites have structures that resemble structures created terrestrial microbes. While many studies suggest that, most likely, these structures are obtained by chemical means, in the academic world, disputes continue. Some researchers believe that life on Earth has been brought to Mars a long time ago, and it might move here just meteorites.
7) Can humans live on Mars?
To finally answer the question of whether or not there is life on Mars, people can fly there and find out.
As early as 1969, NASA had plans of the organization to the 1981 mission to send man to Mars to establish a permanent Martian station by 1988. However, interplanetary travel involving human subjects were not such a simple task as the scientific and technical points of view. For example, significant difficulties were: ensuring supply of food, water, oxygen, elimination of the harmful effects of microgravity and radiation, decreasing to zero the probability of fires, and so on. But the most important thing - you need to adjust psychologically person that he for years will be far away from the Earth and from the real help. It is also difficult to imagine how it is possible to organize a landing, work, life on an alien planet and returning from there back to Earth.
Nevertheless, the astronauts have long been dreaming of such flights. For example, volunteers have agreed to live for a year on a spaceship. It was the longest space flight simulation that was ever developed, the purpose of which was to play in the terrestrial conditions, which may be a mission to Mars from beginning to end.
Volunteers willing to go to Mars - a great variety. Perhaps, once such a flight becomes a reality.
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