Unusual underground dwellings Chinese
In the central part of China remained a large number of underground houses, which for many years and who are the traditional dwelling of local residents.
An amazing centuries-old tradition of the indigenous population in Central China is that they do not build their homes in the traditional sense of the word. Instead, they live underground, digging their homes in the ground.
of this tradition, there are more than 4000 years. Such houses can be seen in Sanmenhi in Henan province, where a series of underground dwellings in approximately 10,000 homes.
In these homes, which in China is called yaodun (yaodong - cave house), lived for six generations for the past 200 years. In 2011, the houses were made to the Intangible Cultural Heritage of China and are currently under protection.
The underground dwellings mostly constructed in the vicinity of the city Sanmensiya in Henan Province. Loess hills, where they were built, were created over thousands of years by strong winds, precipitating sludge ground in huge mounds.
The square or rectangular housing dug in the ground to a depth of 6 to 11 meters, internal temperature is about 10 degrees and 20 degrees in winter the summer. These homes also boast features such as earthquake resistance, sound insulation, and even energy savings.
These homes have several functions. They were provided shade in the summer heat, and were located near agricultural land. The only problem was the ubiquitous rodents.
Today underground dwellings upgraded, and many of them are equipped with electricity and plumbing utilities.
The authorities in Henan Province announced the protection of these areas and plans for their transformation into tourist attractions.
Today everyone can live in "yaodune" house with one bedroom "no amenities" is available for $ 30 per month.
The village parish Huayuantun Vanhuashan city of Yan'an in northern Shaanxi province of the vast majority of the more than a hundred families live in "yaodunah". A 53-year-old farmer Zhang Zhijun both his sons have married and "presented" his grandson and granddaughter. According to Zhang Zhijun their family has for generations lived in "yaodutah".
More than 4 thousand years ago on the Loess Plateau, located in the northern part of Shaanxi Province, people began to dig a cave to be inhabited. In these areas, the loess soils are very sticky and hard, which is why shrink very slightly. Usually, caves dug into the mountainside. They build simple, easy and cheap. In these caves, warm in winter and cool in summer. And to this day on the Loess Plateau, there are many buildings, caves, which are home to more than 40 million people. Height cave is more than three meters and a width too, and the depth of at least up to 20 meters. The inputs of all caves are oriented to the south, toward the sun, as it is most convenient for daytime lighting. Some caves are no reinforced, while others - laid stone or brick. House cave, lined with brick on the outside, are considered to be more beautiful.
The family of the aforementioned Zhang Zhijun lives in 8 houses-caves located in three floors. Two upper caves were dug Zhang Zhijun father in 1962. To this day, they have retained their former appearance. Construction intermediate three caves was completed in 1964, and a few years ago, they have strengthened with bricks. It is home to Zhang Zhijun and his wife, younger son, daughter in law and grandson. Downstairs at the foot of the mountain there are three caves of the lower tier, which were built more than 20 years ago. There is now living the family's eldest son.
In the very back of the cave is a large bench "kan". On the one hand a "channel" is lined oven. There, members of the family Zhang prepare food. Look correspondent attracted three couches around the walls, which are decorated with beautiful paper clippings and drawings. As explained by the researcher at the Yenan Museum Province of mass popular culture of Shaanxi Wang Kevena, this is done on the one hand, to decorate the room, and on the other - in order to avoid contact with the wall bed linen.
"Yaoduny" attract more and more tourists, both Chinese and foreign. Many families prepared their cave to receive tourists.
Today local people gradually realized the value "yaodunov" in which they have lived for many generations, this insight has helped them to improve their lives. The village Yantszyalin is the world's largest cave complex of buildings located in 8 rows in total of over 300 rooms. On the walls are pasted drawings made by farmers, on the windows - cut paper and stone millstone table and chairs on display in front of each cave. In the rural feel a special flavor.
In addition to the reception of tourists from different corners of the country and the world, many local farmers, looking at the city, begin to move from "yaodunov" and build himself a spacious one-story or two-story houses.