Machu Picchu - looted the city of the Inca Empire
The city is built on a rocky cliff in a remote area of the Peruvian Andes in the early 15th century, and after only 100 years, in 1532 all its inhabitants mysteriously disappeared.
The first photo he looks like a castle from the wonderful tales that had slept for centuries in your cozy cocoon of shrubs. More than 400 years the city was abandoned and remained in ruins. It found an American researcher at Yale University professor Hiram Bingham July 24, 1911. And later, an enterprising historian made a robbery of the century in the course of his three expeditions, sending in $ 5 thousand. Artifacts supposedly at the time of research, but they have remained in the United States ...
Plunge briefly into the past and present of the mysterious city of the great empire of the Incas ....
In 1911, he and his team studied the slopes of the Andes, and stopped for the night in the hut of Indian families. Owners little son was just fascinated by the big white stranger, and the whole evening did not leave him a single step. Bingham gave the kid a shiny coin into a salt, not even knowing that in return he will get a truly priceless treasure. Little Indian scientist has led to the ruins of the ancient city. Even a cursory examination of Bingham was enough to understand that as soon as he made a great discovery.
In the town he found the peasants living there. They told him they lived there, "free, without unwanted visitors, officials, recruiting for the army of" volunteers "or tax collectors." In addition, here before we have already visited attractions lovers who left their names inscribed in charcoal on the walls of granite. Spanish conquistadors did not get to Machu Picchu. This city was not destroyed. We are unaware of any purpose of its construction or the number of people, not even his real name. Machu Picchu is located at an altitude of 2430 m above sea level, the name of Machu Picchu is very conditional. The real name of this city no one knows. Machu Picchu (from the Quechua language "old mountain") has called it modern Peruvians.
Archaeologists dig up the remains of nearly a century of settlement, and did not encounter a single reference to the age-old name of the city. Himself Hiram Bingham III, discovered under the ruins of many human skeletons, found them women. He speculated that the mysterious city was a refuge of ancient priestesses - Solar mamakunas virgins. Most beautiful girls were brought here from all over the country. They not only performed the complex religious rituals, but also taught the tricks of weaving, gardening, wine and medicine. A most gifted from nine became concubines Great Inca.
But such a beautiful legend that has arisen with the help of the scientists themselves, refute the results of the latest high-tech research. So, Americans from the University of Massachusetts concluded that out of 173 women found remains belong to only half. Moreover, it was not found a single piece of jewelry during excavations in Machu Picchu, while the arms and heavy weapons of labor - more than enough. And the appearance of the city is more like not a convent and a fortress.
The National Institute of Culture of Peru believe that the founder of the city was the Supreme Inca Pachacutec (1438-1471). Radiocarbon analysis method showed that the city began to build about 1450. It is likely that he initially intended as a temporary winter residence of the ruler, and because its structure is practically copied the capital.
he became a fortress only when the ancient land set foot on Spanish conquerors led by Francisco Pizarro ferocious. And while, like other cities of the Inca Empire died under the merciless steel fifth European barbarians, to Machu Picchu flowed usual peaceful life. This town never knew poverty. Water Urubamba river was crystal clear in the jungle not translated game and exceptional at the time of the Inca agricultural skills allowed them to grow even the most exotic fruits and vegetables. Medicine was also at a very high level ... It seemed that in this earthly paradise could live forever, but in the mid-16th century, its inhabitants mysteriously disappeared - apparently, taking with him all the cash jewels. In any case, even in the tomb of the High Priest, a peculiar treasure, preserved remains of a woman with a history of syphilis, small dog, a few jars, woolen clothing ... And no one, even the smallest, the gold grains!
In the scientific world so far there are three hypotheses to explain the sudden flight of the inhabitants of Machu Picchu. According to the first of them, in Machu Picchu attacked by wild tribes, and the Incas hurriedly "evacuated" in a secret hideout in the mountains. Fragments of the once mighty empire could not resist, though primitively armed, but many orders of savages. Peruvian scientists have put forward a different version according to which Machu Picchu was hit by lightning, and the Incas, considering it a bad sign, I did not want to live here anymore. And it is possible that in an epidemic, and the population, leaving to Machu Picchu dying, fled to the mountains. Unfortunately, none of these theories could not find any distinct confirmation.
In 2011, Peru celebrate the centenary of the opening of the main tourist attractions:
itself Machu Picchu is on the top of a small mountain plateau, and the foot is the town of Aguas Calientes, this is where we left at 5 am to get up to the dawn ... Above Machu Picchu towering mountain Vine Picchu ( "New Mountain") , access to which is limited to a total of 400 visitors per day, and we were among the first ...
And all in order to see the dawn and a picture when the ancient city emerges from the clouds, maybe that's a picture seen in the beginning of the last century, Hiram Bingham ?!
The road on which buses go up to the entrance to the city:
A view of Machu Picchu from the Vine Picchu:
Photo Album Bingham:
On the descent from the Vine Picchu should be noted opposite their names in a special register:
The city in 1946:
There is never the wind, but the city is hidden layer of clouds, a narrow gorge with a roaring at the bottom of the rapid mountain river and the almost vertical mountainsides makes traveling here a memorable one, but it is also very dangerous. Only in the early 1940s, Stone Inca Trail was discovered.
Perhaps the most attractive of all the buildings in Machu Picchu is located in the eastern part of the area "Temple of the three windows." These three windows having a trapezoid shape, facing east, on the sides are "blind window" of the same size, which could serve as niches:
The sacred area was believed to be the religious center of Machu Picchu (pictured center left):
Urubamba River at the bottom:
In general, it's time for the midday relaxation:
Peruvian authorities in 2006 sued Yale for failure to return cultural property. During three expeditions to Machu Picchu in 1911, 1912 and 1914 by its discoverer Hiram Bingham brought together more than 5,000 objects found in the excavations of the ancient city, and brought them to the US. Now the collection is in storage at Yale University, who considers it his. However, under the terms of the agreement almost a century ago, brought from Peru "treasures" were to return to the country by January 1916. But as diplomatic efforts to settle the matter came to nothing lead, it decided to refer the matter to the court. A minor part of the artifacts was handed over to Peru on the centenary discovery of Machu Picchu in 2011. Aguas Calientes - a tourist town, a transit base between Cusco and Machu Picchu:
Tea with coca leaves:
Back we went by train to Ollantoyatambo, then by shuttle bus to Cuzco:
The composition has both freight cars and passenger:
Machu Picchu for me to stay in the memory is absolutely incredible and fantastic-toy town. I do not feel there is any crowds or feeling "worn out" place. I came to Peru to see the magical city in the jungle, and I saw exactly the image that is painted in your mind before you travel. Highly recommend you ever look at this magical place in person:
Wonderful video Gloria Estefan, who was shot in Peru. Here and Machu Picchu, and train, and Titicaca, carnivals, churches and Peruvian grandmother in tall hats with llamas race ... Look, you will want to go to Peru! :)