Coffee in pre-revolutionary Russia
How and what makes coffee in pre-revolutionary Russia? What is meant by "Russian way" of drinking coffee? And how is it that instead of coffee beans brewed seeds pears and watermelon rinds?
The first way of making coffee were taken along with the coffee. In the XVIII century techniques such there were only two. The first - the ancient Turkish. This method is well known to our contemporaries. Coffee, ground to dust, pour into small pots or Turk, poured in cold water and heated to a raising foam. From pots with guschey coffee poured into the cup.
The second way to come out of Europe. Coffee brewed in a large copper or tin coffeepot, then often filtered and poured into cups.
Both of these methods have been distributed in Russia, but the analysis of citations shows that coffee Oriental was distributed still more, even among the upper classes. The second method of preparation of an invigorating drink was more popular in coffee shops, the owners of which were foreigners. Presumably, the Russian-Turkish War, in which the highest light was directly involved.
It is interesting to pay attention to one, only Russian, the method of brewing coffee. This samovar-coffee.
As mentioned above, the coffee came in Russia almost simultaneously with the tea. Naturally, the equipment for the preparation of these two drinks developed in parallel. As a result, there was a very specific samovar-coffee. The device is comprised of a small device with a spirit-lamp or a small drawer for coal. Size they conceded tea samovars and even sbytennyk, but looked much richer. The utilitarian nature of coffee pots, samovars often deliberately disguised, especially at the end of XVIII - the first quarter of the XIX century. Capital samovarschika gave him view column or fluted cylinder on a square pedestal. Faucet and handles were made in the form of lions' heads.
Coffee samovars vessels were of cylindrical shape, the bottom part of the body has been decorated shaped grille (air opening stroke), valve with shaped thistles, and within pipe-brazier worn removable frame to which a canvas bag suspended for ground coffee beans. Later, at the end of the XIX century, coffee samovar not outwardly different from the usual samovar, but the frame of the bag inside remained unchanged.
Back in the forties of the XIX century contemporaries unanimously noted that in St. Petersburg, preference was given to coffee, coffee pots and samovars, mainly produced in St. Petersburg, Fyodor Zolotarev factory, for example. In St. Petersburg there was no coffee pots usual pipe-brazier. It was replaced by metal boxes with coals, placed in the ground. And the inside of the body was inserted into a metal container for coffee - mixer.
At the end of the XIX century coffee pots somewhat modified. Instead drawer coal in the lower part were installed alcohol burner. It is heated in a cylinder housing (or other shape) on tall legs, sometimes it was suspended on the hooks of the vertical frame. Inside the housing is also placed a removable container with mesh walls (for ground coffee beans), ahead of - the crane to spillage of the finished beverage, the top - lid of durable thick glass.
In this coffee pot could even prepare a drink in the living room, on a table in front of the guests, demonstrating their abilities and hostess kulinarka - glass lid allows you to monitor the cooking process and turn off the fire in time.
In the late XIX - early XX centuries from Europe came new instruments for tea and coffee - urns (from French bouillotte -. A little tea, hot water bottle). It represented a vessel with a tap on a stand with a spirit-lamp. Brazier was absent, the water poured hot already, and only a small alcohol lamp to maintain the temperature. Size they are small, only 1-2 liters.
But, unlike the samovar, a large spread in Russia urns had, except maybe Petersburg.
Thus, the preparation of coffee in Russia had its own peculiarities. Russian samovar-coffee pots is a good illustration. It so happened that a coffee drink in Europe became intimate over time. Invite a cup of coffee is to invite a tete-a-tete, and a café for a cup of coffee, it means to be alone with yourself. Russian coffee tradition continued to be a family. Samovar-coffee pot was designed for 3-5 liters, that is supposed to drink coffee its owner will not be alone and not alone, but in a large group of relatives or friends. Yes, there were coffee pots and samovars even amount to 500-700 ml of the so-called "selfish".
But, first of all, pay attention to the negative emotional evaluation, present in the title, and, secondly, any modern antique dealer will tell you how rare these samovars and coffee pots, and how expensive they are prized by collectors. After all, they were released relatively little.
The most common were drinking black coffee, brewed in various ways. A favorite was the Turkish coffee. It is mentioned in any cookbook XIX century. Less common are recipes for coffee in the pot: German (black coffee without chicory), Viennese (with the addition of whipped cream).
It is known that in the XIX century was distributed fashion flower cookery, including on floral coffee. The black coffee added orange blossom (orange flower water), rosewater, violets, lavender less.
Surprisingly, despite the proliferation of Turkish coffee, it is rarely added spices: cardamom, cinnamon, cloves and others. In contrast very often added salt and butter. Do not talk about that in coffee or coffee is often served various liquors: maraschino, lemon, egg, and tinctures.
From myself I would like to bring the recipe "Russian Coffee" published court chef Yuri Mikhailov, in his book "Healthy home table" 1900
The recipe №409. Making coffee in Russian.
No tinning of red copper coffeepot 5 is placed cup 3 spoons of roasted ground coffee and chicory 1/2 tsp. Brewed with boiling water and then boiled. Several times boiled so coffee is placed 5 minutes away from the fire, to allow to settle thick. Very good thick is deposited, if the best coffee to throw hot coal. Then carefully poured the coffee, so as not to shake the grounds.
Coffee, despite its high cost and complexity of penetration in Russia, after all, was perceived consumer culture. Having their own, unlike the European or eastern, analogs, methods of preparation and use of certain ceremonies drink. Coffee has become a symbol of a dignified life, despite the fact that the quality of the drink, apparently, left much to be desired. Coffee drinking sought not only people with money, but also their servants. The last managed to find a large number of ways to achieve the taste of this coffee, but for less money or simply for nothing.
We are still well known chicory, dried and roasted grain that transmits the taste of coffee. But there was in Russia, and many other types of "coffee", which satisfies those who could not afford a real coffee.
Powder for this drink can be used either fresh or cooked in advance. For this large harvested ripe acorns, green, hard to the touch. These acorns need to fry until dark brown. Roasted acorns allow to cool, then remove them from the shells. For the preparation of coffee beverage powder while they are hot, they scroll through a meat grinder and acorn "stuffing" spread out on trays to continue further drying in an oven. The thus prepared powder was simply filled with hot water.
To prepare barley coffee, roasted in the pan used to brown barley flour. For beverage brewed roasted flour in a small amount of water.
Beets cut into slices and dried in the oven. Chilled beets fry until dark brown. Again cool. Grind and drink a brew with hot water.
Coffee dandelion root
Dandelion roots need to wash and dry. Then they are fried as well as the roots of chicory. Powdered, their pour hot water and coffee drink instead.
Coffee from the seeds of pears
Coffee substitute prepared from the roasted seeds of pears, since they contain large amounts of oil. Roasted seeds of pears as well as coffee beans. Then you need to chop and boil as an ordinary coffee.
Coffee from watermelon peels
Watermelon rinds must be cleaned from the pulp and dried in an oven. Cooled crust just grind into powder and cook as well as regular coffee.
The fact that the coffee culture was unable to put down deep roots in the Russian everyday life is only due to the fact that its viability depended entirely on the strength of international relations. These bonds collapsed, and stopped drinking coffee. It is hoped that in the modern Russia of coffee has become one of the essential structures of our everyday life and his repeated return will be much more durable than a century ago.