7 fastest railway lines
April 3, 2007 by the French TGV POS train a new speed record for trains was set - 574, 8 km / h. He is still in effect today. When considering the record for rail speed should be aware that a crucial role is played not by a locomotive and track facilities. Consider how it has evolved in different countries.
The first solution to the problem of modernization of its railways do Japanese. This happened in the late 50-ies of the last century. It was a necessary event in the run-up to the Tokyo Olympic Games in 1964. Because Japanese roads were archaic. Track width was only 1,067 mm, the paths were worn out, obsolete fleet of locomotives.
In the record time of 5, 5 years old, the Japanese built the broad-552-kilometer line "Shinkansen" connected Tokyo and Osaka. Here is the first technology of jointless laying rails have been used in the world: they are soldered to the kilometer-long lashes, and as such are delivered on a platform to the place of installation. The geometry of these joints lashes such that temperature changes do not lead to the formation of gaps between them.
Naturally, there are no crossings on the line, which had to build more than a hundred bridges and tunnels. On "Sinkansene" was used fundamentally new type of train, which has been nicknamed "bullet train," with a light hand of journalists. The bullet train locomotive offline: the engine is mounted on each axle, which can significantly increase the capacity.
In 1964, trains ran between Tokyo and Osaka at speeds of 210 km / h. Now train "Nozomi" N-700 flies 552 km 2 hours 25 minutes, accelerating to 300 km / h. At the moment, "Shinkansen", linking together all the major cities in Japan - the most popular form of transport. Over 50 years of operation of the train "Shinkansen" walking in the morning and evening hours, with an interval of six minutes, transported nearly 7 billion passengers.
Europe responded to the Japanese railway breakthrough with a significant delay. This is partly explained by the fact that the European designers in the 1950s-60s enthusiastically experimented with a train hovercraft and maglev - so called maglev train.
The decision to establish a high-speed line, similar to the Japanese, was made in France in the second half of 1960. National Society French railways took fifteen years to develop and launch the line Paris-Lyon, which was named TGV (train a` grande vitesse - high speed train). Creating a route was though costly, but any problems the engineers did not cause. It was more difficult to construct the train itself. And then in the Constructors' plans unexpectedly intervened global economic conditions. The fact that at the first stage, it was decided to use as a locomotive engine gas turbine plant. In 1971 turbopoezd TGV-001 was successfully tested, showing excellent performance. He has a top speed 318 km / h, which is still the world record for trains without electric traction. However, occurred in 1973, the energy crisis has forced the SNCF management to renounce the use in fuel rose sharply TGV. There was a shift towards the use of less expensive electricity generated at the French nuclear power plants.
In the end, for the 80 th year, I was ready and the line Paris-Lyon. Locomotive and wagons were manufactured by Alstom. September 27, 1981 the line was put into operation. The distance between the two French cities overcame train for 2 hours moving at 260 km / h. Now the speed of the TGV on lines, covered Europe, reaches 350 km / h. As for the average speed, it is 263, 3 km / h. If this ever happens rolling stock modernization and creation of new models. April 3, 2007 the new structure of the shortened TGV POS type has a top speed 574, 8 km / h on the new line LGV EST length of 106 km, connecting Paris to Lorraine. This is an absolute record for the track rail. In this case, the braking distance was 32 km. Train types TGV POS, cruising in France, Germany, Switzerland and Luxembourg, reminiscent of Russian trains. They have two head motor car, between which the eight intermediate trailer. Number of seats - 377.
To speed lines are special requirements in addition to continuous welded rail connections. The radius of rotation is at least 4000 m. Center distance of adjacent tracks is not less than 4, m 5, which reduces the aerodynamic effect at the junction of two opposing trains and the relative speed which can reach 700 km / h. The tunnels through which the track, specifically designed to minimize aerodynamic impact at the entrance and exit of a tunnel. Used special signaling system on the dashboard of the driver and provides automatic braking in the event of insufficient quick driver reactions. Way securely fenced to prevent collisions with animals. To pantograph could not catch running from it overhead wire wave, the wire has a greater tension than in conventional lines. By TGV lines, there is a limit on the speed, but not from above but from below. This is required in order to slug did not reduce the capacity of high-speed lines.
Surprisingly, there is a truly high-speed lines in the United States. Despite the fact that trains from Washington-Baltimore-Philadelphia-New York-Boston, manufactured by the French company Alstom. The maximum speed of the trains in the regular passenger traffic is 241 km / h. The routing speed below when traveling from end to end across the 735 kilometer route it is 110 km / h. Which is explained by the fact that the French high-speed trains have "dragged" along the old rut.
However, in 2013 began construction of the classic high-speed line between Los Angeles and San Francisco. In 2020 it is planned to put into operation, and the TGV POS will be able to show her all that they can do.
Intercity-Express - a network of high-speed trains, mainly common in Germany, developed by Deutsche Bahn. The current generation of trains Intercity-Express, ICE 3, developed by a consortium of the companies Siemens AG and Bombardier under the overall guidance of Siemens AG. Maximum ICE trains speed on a specially constructed for these areas of the railway network is 320 km / h. On standard network portions ICE speed is an average of 160 km / h. Length portions on which the ICE can reach speeds of more than 230 km / h, 1200 km.
ICE is a major train type at distant directions provided by Deutsche Bahn (Deutsche Bahn). They provide both maximum speed and maximum travel comfort. ICE became the basis for the development of the concern Siemens AG of its family of high-speed trains under the general trademark of Siemens Velaro. Velaro projects have been implemented, in particular in Spain and China. These trains are also available in Russian for use on high-speed lines of the Moscow - St. Petersburg and Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod.
The route from Moscow to St. Petersburg, in which the moving train "Sapsan", it should be recognized provisionally speed, because for the most part it is a slightly modernized Soviet legacy of track facilities. In this connection, manufactured by the German company Siemens train capable of speeds up to 350 km / h, only in one section stretches 250 km / h. The average speed - 140 km / h.
By 2017, it is planned to make the road completely expressway. Then the movement between the two cities reduced from 4 hours to 2.
However, Railways still set a record on the line. The amount of the contract for the purchase and operation of 8 trains exceeded 600 million. Euro. Purchase of the same number of fourth-generation fighter would cost cheaper. Quite expensive, allowing the "St. Petersburg" for the weekend to visit the native land.
China has the world's largest network of high-speed and high-speed rail in excess of those in Japan and Europe combined. The average speed is 200 km / h or higher.
High-speed and high-speed road China include upgraded conventional railway line, the new line built specifically for traffic of high speed trains, as well as the world's first commercial line of trains on the magnetic levitation.
As of 2013, the total dekabr extent such roads over 14,400 km made in China, including sections of length 7268 km, with a maximum speed of trains of 350 km / h.
At present, China's booming high-speed railway construction. With the support of the state and because of special incentives is expected that by the end of the 12th Five-Year Plan in 2015, the total length of high-speed rail network will reach 18,000 km.
In technological terms the organization of high-speed rail link is due to the agreements on the transfer of technology from reputable foreign manufacturers such as Bombardier, Alstom and Kawasaki. Adopting foreign technology, China aims to make based on their own development. An example is the development of trains CRH-380A series, which set a record for China's high-speed roads, 500 km / h, made in China and reach speeds of over 350 km / h and 2010 are in the stage of operation. It also reported that a new train Beijing - Shanghai will be developed by the Chinese company Shagun Rail Viklz and put up in 2012
7. East maglev
maglev train (Maglev) can be roughly classified to rail transport, although they float above the blade at a distance of 1, 5 centimeters. In this class expresses the record speed of 581 km / h. It is set in 2003 MLX01 Maglev Railway Technical Institute of Japan Studies at the test site. Until now, Mr known about the timing of the introduction of the Japanese maglev in commercial operation. However, the train has already fly stable and trouble-free, and they are on holidays already rolled inhabitants of the surrounding towns and villages. Since 2002, it operates China's 30-kilometer high-speed line connecting Shanghai to the airport Padun. In this way is used monorail on which train after dispersal hovers at 1, 5 cm. Shanghai speed maglev constructed German company Transrapid ( "daughter" Siemens AG and ThyssenKrupp), amounts to 450 km / h.
In the foreseeable future, the Shanghai line will be extended to the city of Hangzhou, and its length is 175 km.