10 "modern" ideas that people come up with and embodied in ancient times
All new - is well forgotten old
It seems that some of the things on this list have been devised recently. It seems to be logical, because many of them require sophisticated technologies that have appeared only in the XIX-th and XX-th century. But many "modern" ideas into the heads of people came a few thousand years ago and were used by them as well as us.
Prosthetic limbs - a hope for many people with disabilities from around the world. Thanks to them, people can again gain the ability to walk and even run. Dentures look like things that could appear only in the XX-th century, but do not let today's complex mechanisms and materials to deceive you, prostheses were used even before the birth of Christ.
Archaeologists have found a solid object, dating to the fifth Egyptian dynasty (2750-2625 gg. BC. E.), Which could provide support to broken bones. In addition, in 1858, researchers discovered a prosthesis made of wood and copper in Capri, Italy, dating back to 300, the year BC. e. Of course, these primitive prosthetic leg were not as convenient and efficient as modern, but it is for those times was no small achievement.
The actual development of prostheses began when the French surgeon Ambroise Paré began the practice of amputation, that soon began to do everywhere. Since then, a host of advances in prosthetics. For example, in 1863, the year Parmilieu Dubois came up with an improved design of the prosthesis - now he was connected to the limb, taking into account the atmospheric pressure. In 1898, Dr. Vangetti invented prostheses that are controlled by muscle contraction.
Condoms allow people to have sex without the fear of contracting sexually transmitted disease or become pregnant. Some community groups like the Catholic Church, oppose the use of condoms, but it is undeniable that they have helped to save thousands, if not millions of lives worldwide. About the AIDS community and the government have learned in the 1980s, and has since gained wide popularity condoms. But they were invented much earlier - they were an integral part of ancient civilizations as early as the 1000-ies BC. e.
Of course, if they do not latex or polyurethane and leather, oiled silk paper or thin hollow horn or animal intestines, and is often used as long as they do not grind completely. That was until the XV-th century, when an Italian doctor Gabriel Fallopian not suggested the use of disposable linen condoms skins to protect against syphilis.
Can you imagine a world without toilets? World War, chaos and death, where there is not even a place to sit quietly and read your favorite book? Toilets have made our lives convenient, comfortable and civilized.
Modern toilets were first presented to the public in 1800, the year. Their invention is credited to Thomas Krepperu, but this is not true. In fact, the toilets invented godson of Queen Elizabeth I, Sir John Harrington - he came up with the first flush toilets in 1596, the year. However, his invention was then used only in royal houses, and modern toilet Krepper made publicly available, so many people consider him the inventor.
However, the toilets were mankind for thousands of years. Experts have found that some civilizations used the toilets as intended back in 3000 years BC. e. For example, in people's homes Harappan civilization they were, and that was not a luxury, but simply an object for everyday use.
4. Toilet paper
No one conversation about the toilets can not be considered complete without a mention of toilet paper. This is a simple, but extremely necessary invention has appeared in Britain and America in the 1800s, but it became popular only in the 1900s, when general widely toilet cubicles among the people - separate rooms. But as our ancestors before the toilet paper has become commercially available? Yes, everything in sight - wood chips, sand, leaves, algae, moss, grass, ferns, shells, apple skins, wool, hemp, lace and even the stones in case of emergency.
But one civilization was smarter than everyone else: the Chinese began to use more toilet paper in the VI century BC. e. However, it is important to note that the toilet paper is mainly used in the imperial palace of China and in some rich Chinese families. Simple Chinese treated all of the above, but not for long - soon the toilet paper in China has become available and the poor. In XIV-century merchants from Zhejiang province producing 10 million packages of toilet paper per year.
The inventor of the first modern battery is considered to Alessandro Volta: in 1800, he created the copper and zinc plates the first "voltaic pile". Even before Volta, in the 1700s, scientists conducted experiments on electricity production and storage, but they failed. But Bolt was able to create a device that could produce electricity through chemical reactions.
But even before the Volta and his predecessors came to a head even thinking about batteries, their very effectively used by the ancient people. The first inventor of batteries are considered the Parthians - tribe flourished about 250 x pa in. BC. e. on the territory of present-day Iraq.
Unlike Volts, Parthians not used copper and zinc plates - instead they were clay pots filled with vinegar. Inside were an iron rod and a copper cylinder. It is clear that compared to the "voltaic pile" Parthians battery was very primitive, but for that time and it was a breakthrough.
People use chrome for many purposes - for example, to make the surface harder and more durable to provide corrosion resistance and make the service easier and prevention devices. chrome plating technology seems to be relatively new - American Colin Garfield Fink patented invention only in 1926. There is also a German patent for chrome, issued in 1924 by E. Librihu.
Nevertheless, in 1974 the tomb discovery of Qin Shi Huang Di in Shaanxi, China, proved that chrome is not a modern marvel. It turns out that the ancient Chinese chromed their weapons more than 2,000 years ago. When archaeologists discovered the tomb of Huang Di, they were amazed - it was the biggest collection of terracotta statues in the world, as well as a variety of weapons: arrowheads, battle axes, crossbows and spears. And all these objects have survived thanks to the chrome-plating technology.
7. breath fresheners and tooth paste
It seems that oral health - a relatively new trend, but before that nobody cared. At least a few hundred years ago, that's exactly. It is not so: the ancient Egyptians brushed their teeth more thousand years ago.
The Egyptians were very particular relative to oral hygiene, primarily because many of them suffer from diseases of the oral cavity. To hide bad breath, the Egyptians invented the first breath fresheners - then they consisted of myrrh, cinnamon and incense. These fragrant spices boiled together with honey and rolled into small balls.
Of course, the Egyptians understood that health alone is not enough honey candies and invented the first toothpaste. It was not such a pleasant and sophisticated as modern pasta, but it did the trick. Egyptian variant consisted of bovine hooves, pumice, and ashes of burnt eggshells - it is, in case you want to feel like an ancient Egyptian.
8. Plastic Surgery
These days, many people resort to plastic surgery for as long as possible to remain attractive. If we consider what the modern technology necessary for the implementation of this complex medical procedure, it is easy to assume that plastic surgery is a relatively new field. But this is not true: in the first eight eyelid. BC. e. Hindu doctors have already performed and continuously improve these delicate operations.
However, they did their very practical reasons, aesthetics there was nothing to do. In Indian culture, the nose was considered a symbol of pride, and enemies during wars often labeled precisely in this sensitive part of the body. In addition, criminals Hindus often punished, disfiguring, if not cutting off your nose. A plastic surgeons then noses restored. They also performed surgery on damaged earlobes.
9. Vending Machines
Now you can buy in vending machines all - from cigarettes to lottery tickets. They have made our lives easier and more convenient. But they can not be called modern. In fact, they have been around for thousands of years, and the first machine was invented to hold holy water.
Greek professor and inventor Heron of Alexandria, who lived in the I century BC. e., invented the first vending machine to store the holy water and keep it away from thieves. Yes, people stole the holy water, because then it was in the price, and pilgrims were willing to pay for it a lot of money. they are often the same water from the temples and steal.
Heron invented a machine for temples, which allows you to take just the right amount of holy water, for which the pilgrims had already paid. The design of the vending machine Heron was very simple, but to stop the theft of the car in the temple helped.
Of course, dildos are not as necessary as toilets, and are not so revolutionary invention as batteries, but they are to a large extent brightens life couples or single people. In addition, they have been mankind much longer than the rest of the items on our list.
In 2005, the oldest known dildo in the world was found in a German cave. It is made of stone, with a length of 20 cm, and width - 3 cm According to experts, it is about 28 000 years..
In 2010, another dildo was found in Sweden, but he "just sort of" six to eight thousand years. Swede old version is made from wood, considerably less - 10, 5 cm in length and 2 cm in width.
Some experts suggest that dildos are used not only for sexual purposes, but also as tools such as a hammer. In addition, archaeologists are not sure whether the dildo was used in ancient times by appointment only women or men too fond of it. Well, that's for sure that we will never find out.