As Russian kingdom annexed Astrakhan
July 2, 1556, Russian troops for the second time took Xacitarxan. As the local Khan fled, Ivan the Terrible had no other choice but to join all the Khanate to Russia. Soon far from the Tatar settlement was laid fortress, and Astrakhan, founded a second time, became a Russian city.
= Tmutarakan Astrakhan?
In order to substantiate the claims of Russia on the land in the lower reaches of the Volga, the Russian scribes went to the falsification of historical facts. Astrakhan through consonance names became associated with the ancient Russian city Tmutarakan, which in reality was located on the Taman and Kerch peninsulas. Thus, the expansion of the south turned into a return of their lands.
Besides the fact that the Astrakhan Khanate was quite large and poorly protected by the state (which in itself incited to conquer it), Astrakhan was an important trading center. Through it, in the first place, carrying salt and spices, so important in the Middle Ages. But the path through the Khanate was unsafe: Astrakhan, the warlike descendants of Tatars lived not only in trade but also robbery: float merchant could rob, and if not, how Athanasius Nikitin, try to sell into slavery.
Astrakhan was important from a geopolitical point of view: the possession of the city allowed to control the land between the Urals and the Caucasus. Soon after the capture of Astrakhan, the Nogai tribes living east of it, voluntarily move into the Russian citizenship. A Caucasian princes are increasingly complaining about each other, "the big white king", which will gradually lead to and their dependence on Muscovy.
Ivan the Terrible, it seems did not try to seize Astrakhan land: it was enough to make there the khan acknowledged his authority and allowed to trade on preferential terms to the Russian merchants. And Khan Yamgurchey satisfies these conditions: he volunteered to be diligent servant and even a tributary of the Moscow State. However, it turned out to be either weak, or stupid, or strangely artful. Tempted by the patronage of the Crimean Khan and the Turkish sultan, Yamgurchey violated his own oath rather than to discuss with the Russian ambassador Union conditions, he has dishonored him and imprisoned on an island in the Caspian Sea. This was the reason for the campaign our troops in Astrakhan.
The first capture of Astrakhan
June 29, 1554 reconnaissance detachment under the command of Prince Alexander Vyazemsky utterly routed the vanguard of Astrakhan. It was the only battle in the entire campaign.
Languages said that five kilometers down the Volga is the camp of Khan and Astrakhan almost defenseless. 30,000 Russian soldiers, not waiting for the arrival of the Nogai Horde allies, divided into two parts: Viazemsky squad went to meet Yamgurcheyu and the army under the command of Yuri Pronsky-Shemyakin entered the Astrakhan. However, instead of the enemy Vyazemskij found abandoned in a panic Food and guns. And, when set off in pursuit, I was able to catch a train to the wives of Khan.
But that was not so important: Astrakhan actually turned into a puppet state: here was planted Derbysh Khan Ali, exiled in his time Yamgurcheem and lived several years in Zvenigorod.
The oath and treachery Derbyshev
Khan returned with several thousands of Astrakhan, gathered in the market square, solemnly swore allegiance to Ivan the Terrible and his successors. Was appointed as an annual tribute, forty thousand and three thousand Altyn sturgeon is not less than the size of fathoms.
Derbysh was not much more far-sighted Yamgurcheya: a few months after his return, he got involved in the local political game, neglecting the alliance with the far-away Moscow. He entered into an alliance with the opposition Nogai khans who killed Yamgurcheya, released from Astrakhan to Moscow's ambassador noble Turgenev and began to cooperate with the Crimean khan.
The Russian army was forced to start again in Astrakhan, where, fearing rumors and scattered the inhabitants and rulers. It happened in 1555, and Ivan the Terrible yet dared not join completely Astrakhan Derbyshev restored, forgiven, and even not allowed to pay for a year tribute.
The Informant Ishmael
Not only from the Russian governor, but from Nogai Khan Ishmael regularly received the king information about events in Astrakhan. Ishmael, thus having secured an alliance with Russia was fighting with his political enemies in other nagayskimi MPD who just helped Derbyshev. He was the first in 1556 reported the Terrible that Derbysh changed completely, conspired with the Crimea, drove Russian squad and executed local princes loyal to Moscow. He even seemed to have sent troops to Astrakhan. Three days later, his words confirmed the message magistrates Mansurov.
The second capture and association of
Astrakhan second campaign was as ridiculous as the first one. More Cossacks, archers and vyatchane under Pisemsky team - In support of the garrison, and drove out of town, five hundred Cossacks, them were sent. July 2 it a few army led by Ivan Cheremisinova mingled with Cossack detachments Lyapunov Filimonov. But it turned out that the fight is not with anyone: 500 Cossacks scared away everyone. "They came in Astorohan, but the city let the king and the people ran out", - reports the king Cheremesinov.
Let pursuit Derbyshev caught up, attacked the camp at night, then fought the whole day - and then sent Derbysh brow beat that changed the king against his will. I forgive him again, and he promised a few days to return to Astrakhan. But he did not return. It turned out that it even came to help from the Crimean Khan, though only 700 sabers. It assumed a new battle. But then the Allies Derbyshev, Naga opposition quarreled among themselves, cut each other for three days and finally took the side of Ishmael and hence Russia. They drove themselves Derbyshev and Astrakhan, the people began to come to the Russian princes, brow beat and swear allegiance to the Russian tsar. So Astrakhan Khanate became a part of Russia.