Famous places and attractions that go underground
If you are asked to name the most famous sights, leaving the ground, then you most likely will call the leaning tower of Pisa and Venice, gradually sink into the water. However, there are others that in the foreseeable future, in addition to these two well-known tourist destinations can be destroyed.
1. "Millennium Tower" (Millennium Tower), USA
Luxury high-rise "Millennium Tower" has opened its doors in 2009 and has since become popularly known as "The Leaning Tower of San Francisco." It is plunged into the ground almost 16 inches (40 64 cm) and a few inches deviated from the vertical axis of the north-west.
Developers argue that the 58-storey skyscraper is still safe for the residents, and the blame lay for the construction of the municipal authorities located near the railway station, in which, according to them, the ground water are gone from under the foundation, thereby causing a slope .
In fact, no one is no specific reasons that could cause subsidence, but the debate continues, serves as a stimulus to many lawsuits involving the developer, the city and the owners of expensive multi-million dollar apartments.
More recently, the European Space Agency (European Space Agency) published detailed data from the satellite images, which show that a skyscraper located in the financial district of San Francisco, continues to sink into the ground at a constant speed and, perhaps more rapidly than previously thought.
2. Venice (Italy)
Venice is known as the "city on the water," but this title may soon go into the past: the famous city goes under the water of the Adriatic Sea at a speed 5 times faster than previously thought, and, with the slope to the east of frequent floods. To prevent flooding of Venice, a few measures have been taken, including the creation of a special barrier (MOSE project). It was believed that with the help of the water level could be stabilized.
However, Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps Institution of Oceanography) in San Diego, California, USA, found that the city continues to go under the water and tilted at an unprecedented rate of 2 mm per year over the last 10 years, with some northern areas - from a rate of 2-3 mm per year, while the southern lagoon in the same period plunged into the water 3-4 mm.
Luigi Tosi (Luigi Tosi), a spokesman for the National Research Council, said the flooding caused by subsidence of Venice with a simultaneous rise in sea level.
3. "sags bell tower" in the Philippines
Cathedral of St. William (St. William's Cathedral), located in the city of Laoag (Laoag), the Philippines, famous for its "sags belfry" (Sinking Bell Tower).
Located 85 meters from the church, a 45-meter high bell tower was built in 1612 on the sandy ground. It gradually sinking into the ground about an inch (2, 54 cm) per year.
Legend has it that when it was built only in her could enter a rider, but today a man of average height will have to duck to get through the pass. Despite this, the bells continue to convene parishioners to mass.
4. The Palace of Fine Arts (Palacio de Bellas Artes), Mexico City, Mexico
Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City went into the ground so deeply that it was originally the ground floor is now a basement!
A city that was built on an island in the middle of the lake at about 1325, for centuries plagued by excess water. Deforestation has depleted resources due to which in the XIX century, fresh water flowed into the city by aqueducts. The first well of fresh water has been built in the city center in 1857, and by 1900, hundreds of wells sucked water from an underground aquifer.
Some parts of the city fell more than 7 meters in 1891. Some parts of the city center during the period between 1948 and 1951 year sunk more than a meter, a meter and more - by 1960.
City dropped to 2 meters below what was left of the Texcoco Lake (Lake Texcoco), creating a serious risk of flooding during the rainy season. In 1950, the south of the city were dug new wells, reducing flooding the city with the same speed to about 10 centimeters per year. It helped, but the building in the southern part of the city since then began to sink even faster.
5. The Taj Mahal (Taj Mahal), India
Taj Mahal that was built over 350 years ago as a symbol of love, the sultan of the Mughal Empire by Shah Jahan for his wife, goes underground. One of the minarets of the famous buildings in the past 30 years has deviated from the vertical axis 3, 5 centimeters.
Fundam ebony palace built on a river Jumna (Yamuna River), requires a constant flow of moisture to maintain stability. Due to climate change, river recently completely dries up in the summer months, resulting in the foundation settles, resulting in a slope.
6. Milwaukee (Milwaukee), Wisconsin, USA
Much of the city sinking into the ground.
In urban areas Third Ward begin to break bricks and cracks, and the buildings are starting to bend. But why?
Much in this city was built on a swamp. At the turn of the century Contractors using steam pile pile drivers to drive in marshy land thousands of wooden piles. Then, on top of the pile was filled with concrete as a foundation for future buildings. In the method the installation of the foundation on wooden stilts is nothing new, and it has been used in Europe for many centuries, but "pilings have kept wet sounds unexpected, but things are constantly being wet, rotting slowly.", - said Douglas Chirkauer (Douglas Cherkauer), professor of geological sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.
When the groundwater level has fallen (for unknown reasons still), pilings were subjected to the action of air and ... well, you can guess the rest.
7. The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italy)
There are 3 meters deep, foundation Leaning Tower of Pisa was built on a dense mixture of clay, but the clay was not too strong to keep the building upright. Construction began in 1173, but the tower began to lean as early as 1178, when it was added to the second floor.
The tower leaned slightly to numerous attempts to keep it from tilting and falling undertaken by different architects for centuries. In 2008, the engineers said that the Tower of Pisa stopped moving for the first time in the history of its existence, noting that she had not leaned on one side.
They expect that the tower will remain in a stable state, at least another 200 years. If you need more intervention, there is a technology that can be done to improve and preserve the tower for another 800 years. (Tourists! You have plenty of time to make and publish in Instagram photos that you "hold" Leaning Tower of Pisa!)
8. Santos (Santos), Brazil
We would not even think that the danger of living in one of these buildings in the Brazilian city of Santos: along its coastline built a series of high-rise buildings that are accurately tilted to one side. Under 7m layer of sand is 30-40 meter slippery layer clays, which can not withstand the weight of structures erected. Prior to 1968, local building codes do not limit the type of foundation, which can be used in the construction of multi-storey buildings.
The ideal depth of the foundation is here to reach about 50 meters, but the foundations of buildings along the waterfront Santos go in depth by only 4-5 meters. After it became apparent slope of the first buildings in building codes were introduced the requirement to deepen the foundation for high-rise buildings.
Surprisingly, people continue to live in these apartments, and the main problem they face right now - is the depreciation of their property: the prices for apartments in these houses have fallen immediately after the slope has become visible to the naked eye many years ago.