San Francisco from above: the pearl of sunny California
• San Francisco from above: sunny California jewel of
San Francisco is located on the US West Coast in California. A population of about 815,000 people. This is the twelfth largest city in the country. Among the main attractions - the bridge "Golden Gate" and a former Alcatraz prison on the same island in San Francisco Bay.
Prior to European colonization of the peninsula, which today is a modern city, inhabited by Indians. San Francisco founded the Spaniards: in 1776 they opened here fortified Catholic mission named after St. Francis of Assisi. Near the fort later came a small town, called by the Spaniards Yerba Buena - "good grass": colonists discovered in these parts plant that shape reminded them of home. At the beginning of the XIX century, California and San Francisco became part of Mexico. By mid-century it was reclaimed by the United States. The name of San Francisco, the city received in 1847. At the same time began to grow rapidly due to the "gold fever" (for two years, the population has increased by 25 times). The earthquake and fire almost completely destroyed the city in 1906, after which San Francisco was built virtually from scratch.
The reconstruction of the city lasted for several decades. "Golden Gate" and the Bay Bridge (- pictured fragment thereof): At the end of the 30s in San Francisco two major bridge across the bay were built. During World War II San Francisco has become the largest supply base for US troops in the Pacific theater of operations. In 1970-80-ies San Francisco experienced a boom in the construction of skyscrapers, nicknamed "manhettenizatsiey". In October 1989, the city again is quite affected by the 7-point earthquake. In 90-ies of XX century, San Francisco was the center of the boom of information technology and the informal capital of the world IT-industry.
Banking and legal services - another important sector of the San Francisco economy. The city is the financial center of the Pacific coast of the United States, it is often called "Wall Street West." In the photo: Financial District ( "FiDi") - the highest buildings of San Francisco occupied by banks, law firms, corporate headquarters.
Ferry Building (San Francisco Ferry Building).
The famous sea ferries terminal on the waterfront Embarcadero. It was commissioned in 1898 and at that time was the largest construction project in San Francisco. Prior to the construction of two large bridges over the San Francisco Bay in the late 30-ies of XX century Ferry Building was the world's second busiest (after London's Charing Cross) passenger transit terminal. Ferry Building is also used as a shopping mall, three days a week year-round farmers' market food works here.
the 70-meter tower ferry terminal was built on the model of the famous medieval bell tower of the Giralda in Seville Spain. Antique Clock Tower Ferry Building today - the world's largest mechanical windup clockwork. Terminal Tower can be seen from a distance of several kilometers, to building out the main street Market Street.
Market Street (Market Street).
The main transport artery and the center of tourist attraction stretches for 5 km from the Embarcadero waterfront to the hill Twin Peaks - one of the highest points in the geographic center of San Francisco.
In high-rise buildings on the west coast of San Francisco is second only to Los Angeles, and the country is ranked seventh (after New York, Chicago, Miami, Los Angeles, Houston and Dallas). In San Francisco, more than 370 high-rise buildings, two dozen of them - skyscrapers (over 150 meters). Most skyscrapers have been built in the 1960-80s.
"Transamerica" (Transamerica Pyramid).
The most famous tallest building San Francisco - pyramidal skyscraper was built in 1972. In it 48 floors, the height of 260 meters.
The building of "Transamerica" is also known as "Spire". Until 1973, it was the tallest building west coast of the USA, giving the palm (of 2 meters) Aon Center in Los Angeles. "Transamerica" - 35th-tallest building in the US and 190 th in the world.
tetrahedral pyramid "Transamerica" is topped with a 64-meter spire with panels of aluminum, which perfectly reflect the light in the dark. In the two "wings" on the sides -vystupah are mine peak of the high-speed elevator and tower-hood to remove smoke from the building in case of fire.
Pyramid "Transamerica" - an office center. Since 1999, owned by the Dutch insurance company AEGON. Unauthorized access to the building is limited, visitors can admire it only from the outside. On the 27th floor was once arranged a viewing platform, it was closed after the September 11 attacks.
"Transamerica" still remains the tallest building in San Francisco. However, according to the plans, in 2018 yield the palm 326-meter business center Salesforce Tower. He is currently under construction (in this photo construction site - just to the right White skyscraper in the background).
Union Square (Union Square).
The most famous area of San Francisco. It opens in the middle of the XIX century. At this point held public meetings on the theme of unification of North and South, from which the area got its name. One of the most prestigious and luxurious areas of the city. Union Square is surrounded by luxury hotels, boutiques premium brands of clothing, accessories and jewelry, theaters, restaurants, beauty salons. Center tourist attraction. Union Square hold mass city events. At Christmas, decorate the Christmas tree area.
In the center of Union Square in 1903, a monument in honor of the triumph of Admiral George Dewey's: in 1898 he defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War.
Telegraph Hill (Telegraph Hill).
One of the 44 hills of San Francisco. Height above sea level of 84 meters. It was formerly known as "High" and "Goat", and received its present name in 1849: at the top of the marine telegraph was built in the form of a pole with rungs. With various configurations semaphore informed citizens, the ship of the type (sailboat, boat and so on. D.) Enters the bay. This allowed traders and speculators to quickly navigate and quickly adjust the prices of goods.
At the top of Telegraph Hill Tower Coit Tower was built in 1933. Has the shape of a fire pump, built with funds bequeathed a rich and eccentric local woman Lillie Hitchcock Coit she publicly smoked cigars, wore trousers and was a big fan of fire business and the voluntary assistant local firefighters. Elevator inside the round tower takes visitors to the observation deck. With a height of 70 meters offers excellent views of San Francisco. In the center of the circular area near the tower a statue of Christopher Columbus.
Civic Center - a complex of several squares and buildings in the classical style, is located San Francisco municipality.
The building of the San Francisco City Hall was built in 1915 on the site of the former, which was destroyed by an earthquake in 1906. The current building at 6 meters above the Capitol in Washington. In January 1954, in the City Hall of San Francisco held a wedding of Marilyn Monroe and Joe DiMaggio baseball (they divorced nine months later).
Lombard Street (Lombard Street).
The most winding street in the world. Its 400-foot portion has been designed in a serpentine fashion to smooth slope 27% to 16% acceptable. Speed cornering limited to 8 km / h.
Despite the measures to smooth gradient steps, to "zmeistom" section of Lombard Street is allowed only one-way traffic from the top down. The street it is very fond of skateboarders.
The coolest - literally - the street of San Francisco. Slope on Philbert Street (Filbert Street) reaches 20 degrees (about 29-31%).
The Bridge "Golden Gate" (Golden Gate Bridge).
San Francisco universally recognized symbol was built in 1937. Until 1964, it was the largest suspension bridge in the world. "Golden Gate" thrown through the Strait of the same name at the entrance to the bay and connects San Francisco to Marin County suburb.
The total length of the bridge - 2737 m, length of the main flight - 1280 m, the mass - 894 500 tons. Construction of the bridge during the Great Depression made it work and helped to survive the hundreds of workers. Their life literally during the installation work saved stretched under construction safety net.
The central span of 80 m height allows you to pass under the bridge of high courts. The height above the roadway surface of the water during high tide is 67 m.
In the final stage of construction of the creators of the bridge at an impasse, debating furiously about his future color. And while debaters discussed the shades of gray and black, the bridge is secured against rust and covered with succulent terracotta-red primer. The result stunned his unexpected scale, perfectly fits into the landscape, and the color of the bridge was a foregone conclusion. Today, "Golden Gate" serves the team of 40 painters. Bridge painted almost every day, but only in those places where it is really needed.
The height of the pillars of the bridge above the water surface - 227 meters. This is commensurate with the height of 75-storey skyscraper. The bridge is suspended on two main ropes sectional diameter of each 93 cm. The main rope composed of a plurality of thin. Their total length will be enough to wrap three times the Earth at the equator.
The Bridge "Golden Gate" is one of the world record for the number of suicides committed. According to various unofficial sources, their own lives are reduced by 1,400 to 1,700 people. Moreover, potential suicides come to San Francisco from across the country. Man falls to "Golden Gate" 4 seconds and hits the water at a speed of over 130 km / h, in most cases, it leads to death. Preventive measures (such as the installation on the bridge of psychological assistance service telephone) were ineffective. In 2014, the administration of "Golden Gate" endorsed the idea of creating antisuitsidnoy grid under the bridge, but the barrier project is constantly hinder financial and organizational difficulties.
The bridge with six rows of traffic and two pedestrian walkways - half paid. Money (now - 6, $ 5 per car) charge for travel in a southerly direction, the movement from south to north for free. With money pedestrians do not take at all.
39 Pier (Pier 39).
Favorite not only tourists but also locals shopping and entertainment center on the pier.
Pier 39 is known for not only its many restaurants, cafes, cinemas, souvenir shops and attractions. Its main attraction - the California sea lion rookery. Today, on the pier lives up to 1500 animals. With the growth of the colony grew and the number of complaints yacht owners about the noise and smell. But attachment to the place of tourists and international fame were important. People reconstructed pier and tried to make life as comfortable as sea lions.
Alcatraz Island (Alcatraz Island).
Name it (for a family of pelicans bird name) gave the Spanish naval officers at the end of the XVIII century. In the next century on the island of the lighthouse was built, and later - the largest on the US West fort to protect the bay from the sea.
World famous island of Alcatraz (with the assistance of the literature, the media, movies and computer games) brought the prison of special treatment for the most inveterate criminals of the country (for example, Alcatraz served his sentence known Chicago mobster Al Capone). According to official data, over three decades, no attempt to escape from the "Rocks" (this is one more name of the island and the prison) was not successful. However, the five members of the shoots were deemed "missing", so maybe they managed to escape. Harsh prison operated from 1934 to 1963, it was closed for economic and environmental reasons. Now the former prison complex houses a museum.
To the left of the skyscraper "Transamerica" diagonally away one of the biggest avenues of San Francisco Columbus Avenue (Columbus Avenue).
Castro (Castro District).
San Francisco was chosen one of the largest and most active in the US gay community. This is especially felt in the Castro neighborhood in the city center - it is the unofficial title of "world's gay capital." It is in the gay quarter of Castro once appeared LGBT symbol - rainbow flag, and at the crossroads of Castro and 18th street there is even a rainbow crosswalk.
Up to 15% of the residents of San Francisco today, different sexual orientation, it is more than in any other major city in the world. Here resided Harvey Milk - the first American politician to declare their orientation openly (in November 1978 he was shot in the city hall, along with Mayor George Moscone).
In April 1906, San Francisco was 80% destroyed by a powerful earthquake of magnitude 7, 8 points. Killed about 3,000 people, three-quarters of the city of 400,000th population homeless. Damage exceeded half a billion dollars (about $ 5-6 billion in today's terms). San Francisco is in the fault zone of the San Andreas, a building in a modern city built taking into account the seismic safety requirements.
The disaster in 1906 is considered the starting point of history, "Bank of America". The majority of banks in San Francisco, then burned along with the money. Based only in the Italian immigrant Amadeo Giannini's Bank of Italy remained about 80 thousand US dollars. By order of the Board of Directors and Chairman of the money they gave to those who wanted to rebuild their home. Subsequently, the bank kept the focus on the middle-class service and eventually became the largest US financial services company.
Central Tower (Central Tower). In 1892-98 years the tallest building in the city.
The Museum of Modern Art San Francisco (sSFMOMA).
The museum features more than 29,000 works of painting, drawing, sculpture, photography and architecture as well as art objects of the late XIX-XXI centuries.
60-storey tower Salesforce Tower (326 meters) after the completion of construction in 2018 will be the tallest skyscraper in San Francisco.
The residential complex "Berth" (The Gateway) on the shores of San Francisco Bay - Four high-rise buildings with apartments and luxury apartments.
Market Street. The building is an unusual architectural form in the foreground on the right - Hotel Hyatt Regency San Francisco (Hyatt Regency San Francisco).
28-storey building with an unusual history - the McAllister Tower (100 McAllister Street). It was designed and built in 1930 as an associate mega-church of the Methodist Church, designed by more than one and a half thousand people, a large organ was installed in the building. It also planned to open the hotel for visiting parishioners. However, the cost of construction and maintenance of the building as a result could not afford the church. Later, it housed a hotel, offices, and now the 94-meter-high skyscraper belongs to the College of Law of the University of San Francisco and is used as a student dormitory.
One Maritime Plaza.
Office 27-storey building (height - 121 meters) in the financial center of San Francisco. Built in 1967. One of the city's first buildings with "seismic braid": the external cables and power X-shaped beams used in construction.
"Pacific Heights" (Pacific Heights) - a prestigious and expensive area of the "private sector" in San Francisco. Street intersection Pacific Avenue and Divisadero Street.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts).
Initially created as a temporary museum of Fine Arts for the Panama-Pacific Exhibition in 1915.
Syutro Tower (Sutro Tower).
The tallest building not only San Francisco, but the whole of California - radio tower, television tower height of 299 meters. As the mast is built on a hill, its peak is located at an altitude of 553 meters above sea level.
Rushen Hill ( "Russian Hill"). The name dates back to the "Gold Rush", when on top of the hill was a small Russian cemetery, were later moved. It is assumed that people buried in it were sailors and traders from Fort Ross, located near San Francisco. Today the Russian-speaking community of San Francisco is concentrated mainly in the Richmond area.
Richmond (Richmond) - region in the northwest of San Francisco. Place of compact residence of the Russian-speaking population.
Bridge Oakland Bay Bridge (San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge)
Convenient connectivity over (and under!) Bay of San Francisco and Oakland. His name is often shortened to simply the Bay Bridge. One of the longest bridge of its kind in the world. It consists of two parts, which are interconnected by a tunnel under the island Yerba Buena width of 23 meters. The total length of the bridge is more than 7 km.
The bridge was opened in November 1936. Spans Bay Bridge - Bunk. Each tier is organized movement in one direction only.
In 1989, part of the upper deck of the eastern segment of the bridge collapsed in the earthquake, and the Bay Bridge was closed for a month. Later it was decided to carry out a complete reconstruction of the section between Oakland and Yerba Buena Island - this option recognized the most appropriate in terms of economy and seismic safety. After a design competition the construction segment of the bridge began in 2006, after its completion in 2013, the old bridge was dismantled fragment.
Bay Bridge is paid, but the fee is charged only on the Oakland side when driving toward San Francisco. The price depends on the day of the week and time of day. The picture shows the entrance to the bridge from Auckland.
Morning at the point of charge.
Bus Park in San Francisco. Despite the high level of car ownership, more than one third of the inhabitants of San Francisco regularly use public transport. Its network is one of the most advanced and largest on the US West Coast. The system includes bus and trolley routes (in San Francisco's largest trolleybus system in the US and one of the largest in the Western Hemisphere), above and below ground speed trams Muni Metro. All this - plus the historic cable tram - is San Francisco Municipal Railway system. In common parlance Muni.
Organization-operator of public transport in the city. Muni system works 365 days a year. And 24 hours. Buses run even during the night, though from 1:30 to 5:30 at night there are special routes that do not coincide with the daytime.
In the Muni system includes five kinds of public transport: bus, trolleybus, modern high-speed tram, the historic electric tram and the historic cable tram.
An ocean cruise ship MS Arcadia with a capacity of 2388 passengers at the pier in the port of San Francisco. With the development of container traffic center of sea freight traffic shifted to the nearby Auckland. And the infrastructure of San Francisco port is enabled in the system of tourism and recreation.
The container terminal Acorn Industrial in Auckland. San Francisco port previously was the largest and busiest on the west coast of the USA. An important condition for efficient cargo handling in the port was the presence of many piers perpendicular to the shore, the cranes and loaders. All it had in San Francisco. Port took goods from around the world. The modern system of container transportation with fast unloading and express logistics, eliminating the need for ports based on the piers. This led to a movement in Oakland most of the commercial traffic.
In the literal translation from English - "the earth, covered with oaks." The city is located on the shores of San Francisco Bay. The number of inhabitants (more than half a million people) Oakland is ranked third in the entire San Francisco Bay, second only to San Francisco and San Jose.