Curious about stationery
Modern people perceive office supplies as a matter of course. And this is understandable - after all, many of these things are almost always: the students - in school, students - in universities and office employees in the workplace. And yet few people think about how there were all these are familiar and such necessary things.
The ancestor of the modern pencil was a Roman writing instrument by name "pen". Some early styluses were made of lead. When I first started to use graphite (in England in 1564), this mineral is replaced by heavy metal. Graphite leaves a dark mark on the paper, but it was so soft, it is easy to crumble and break. In order to protect the graphite rods, they began to wind the thin rope.
Later, there were hollow wooden sticks, becoming the prototype of the modern pencil. For the first time mass production started in 1662 in Nuremberg, Germany. A paint in a different color pencils began in 1890, and first came to light a bright yellow pencils. Such color was chosen because yellow is traditionally associated with the Chinese imperial dynasty, and the best graphite is shipped from China.
The usual eraser.
Until 1770, when he first appeared erasers, many people have used small pieces of rubber or wax to correct errors in the text, written in pencil. In order to correct errors in the text, written in ink, used sandstone or pumice. The Japanese erased pencil marks using lumps of soft bread. English engineer Edward Nairne was the first to use an eraser made of rubber, and he was so impressed that he began to produce and sell such devices for error correction. The problem with early erasers lay in the fact that the solid rubber is easily crumbled, and she had an unpleasant odor. When Charles Goodyear invented vulcanization, the problem was solved.
A typical ballpoint pen.
Starting from 1888, when the American tanner John Laud patented his version of a ballpoint pen to mark up the skins, more than 350 other inventors began patenting designs for additional ballpoint pen, but none of these inventions have not gone into mass production. In 1935, the newspapers and Greg Ladislas Biro, frustrated fountain pens, which they used to try to invent a universal pen and ink improve.
As a result, the brothers have come up with a sponge ball, which with the help of the capillaries more easily absorb the ink and keeps the pen at an angle, rather than straight. They began to produce his Biro pen in Argentina, but the sales were not very good. As a result, the brothers sold the patent Eberhard Faber for $ 500,000 after the Second World War.
But the company decided to postpone the production, and the term of the patent expired soon. Milton Reynolds, salesman from Chicago, became a multi-millionaire after he started selling Biro pen in the United States. And then tightened and the other companies, which began to improve ball-point pens, in particular French producer Marcel Bich.
Felt-tip pen, which used water-based ink, appeared only in the 1960s, thanks to Japanese inventor Yukio Hori. In 1963, Carter's Ink has released a Hi-Liter - a marker, similar to the invention Hori. In both felt-tip pens used by the capillary principle, in order to deliver the ink to the writing tip. Fluorescent colors appeared only in 1978.
Protractor for measuring angles have been around for 500 years. Cartographer Thomas Blandevill first described this instrument in his 1589 monograph "Description universal cards". I invented it Blandevill protractor or not - is unknown, as well as his contemporaries wrote about these instruments. By the beginning of the XVII century protractors already widely used marine navigators. By the XX century, they appeared in the schools.
6. Drawing compasses
Normal drawing compasses.
It turns out that there is a compass since ancient times. For example, in the British Museum, you can see samples of the ancient compasses. Initially, the two legs of the compass ended with sharp ends that on paper could be scratched circle, which then encircles ink. In the XVIII century, one compass leg was equipped with a device for attaching a pencil or graphite sticks.
In the past, drawing compasses were made of various materials, including brass, nickel silver, aluminum, steel, wood and plastic. Often also to decorate them applied beautiful ornament, and many compasses were equipped with small hands on the legs to the device was easier to push.
7. Folder recorder
Folder logger with three ring clamp.
German inventor Friedrich Zonnekken is most famous for having invented the hole punch. And in 1886 he invented the ring terminal. Later in this clamp added two rings on the distance of 80 mm from each other. When in 1854 invented the loose-leaf sheets, they immediately began to attach the ring terminal. But mass production of the same folder went only in 1899.
8. The grommet
Although perekidnye sheets appeared in 1854 year, Kenneth George J. Rousseau and block guessed patent eyelets (ring-laths to strengthen the edges of the holes in the paper) only in 1992 year. Today these round adhesive label with a hole in the center are often sold in sheets, but initially they were worn on special rollers.
9. Lunch Box
Lunch boxes began to be sold in the late XIX century, but then they were called "buckets for lunch." As you can guess from the name, they were like a bucket, but were equipped with covers at the same time. At the same time they were made of metal. Gradually, people began to make their own more convenient "lunch box".
The first commercial lunch boxes appeared in 1902, and they already look like a picnic basket. During the peak of popularity Broen Lunch boxes (1950-1970) in the US alone, there were 120 million sold. Today for lunch boxes are experiencing a revival.
Backpacks are actually relatively new. And before that, the students tied stack of textbooks with ropes or straps and wore them to school in this way. In 1938, Gerry Outdoors invented the first backpack zipper, but at the time, this novelty was not even intended for pupils and students.
Backpacks sold mainly to tourists and skiers. In 1967, Gerry Outdoors created the first modern nylon backpack, which was an instant hit among tourists. A special lightweight backpack for students released only JanSport.