From what was bursting royal table
The love feast Russian emperors? In this issue you will learn about the culinary preferences of the heads of the Russian Empire - from Alexander I to Alexander III.
In general it can be argued that the Russian autocrats, beginning with Catherine II, were quite moderate in eating. Quite often their everyday table is simple, although it is, of course, did not exclude the gastronomic delights during public frishtikov (breakfast), lunches and dinners.
The Emperor Alexander I (1777-1825) and appeared thanks to him, Pozharsky cutlets
Memoirs brought us the "gastronomic routine" Emperor Alexander I. He writes about the life of the king of the very competent people - Life medic DK Tarasov, who, no doubt, has recommended to the king certain dishes into account the peculiarities of his body:
"In Tsarskoye Selo, the Emperor is constantly observed in the spring and summer of the following order: 7 o'clock in the morning ate tea, always green, with thick cream and toasted croutons of white bread ... at 10 o'clock came back from a walk and sometimes ate fruits, especially strawberries, which I preferred to all other fruits ... At 4:00 dined. After dinner, the Emperor was walking or in a carriage, or on horseback. At 9 o'clock in the evening I ate tea, after whose is engaged in work in his small office; in 11 hours ate sometimes curdled, sometimes prunes, prepared for him without the outer skin. "
We can confidently assert that the green tea in the morning and yogurt with prunes for the night - it is the recommendation of doctors who were responsible for the proper digestion of the king. But strawberries and plums without skin - Emperor gastronomic cravings.
Emperor Alexander I. Tea Set
Fruits on the imperial table in winter season were quite commonplace. These fruits and berries regularly supplied not only from greenhouses in Tsarskoye Selo, Gatchina and Ropsha. They were taken to St. Petersburg and Moscow from imperial greenhouses. For the imperial family there are some unspoken "quota" on the supplied fruit. And when the fruit of the imperial greenhouses were sent to the desk of any dignitary is evidence of his special closeness to the imperial family. National gastronomic predilections of Alexander I mention botvinya memoirs: "The Emperor Alexander Pavlovich was very disposed to the British Ambassador. Once, talking with him about the Russian kitchen, he asked whether the concept of botvinya that the Emperor himself was very fond of. "
In this passage is remarkable the fact of "gastronomic conversations" Russian Emperor and the British Ambassador at social events, that is, the topic was considered quite "secular". This conversation had a rather comical sequel. When Alexander I sent the British Ambassador his beloved beet soup, then to the table it submitted heated. It is clear that this was not botvinya. And when the emperor asked, "impressions" the ambassador of this cuisine, the diplomat was in great difficulty ...
Sometimes gastronomic predilections autocrats, allowing for the time present some danger to their health. For example, Alexander I loved tea with honey. The point perfectly ordinary, harmless and useful. However, the emperor's tastes somehow became a taste of his surroundings, and tea with honey, as it is known, it is a good diaphoretic. When, during the balls, among other things, served tea with honey in a bowl of silver, low-cut ladies danced in the halls and enfilades the Winter Palace, where sometimes walked drafts, regaled them with pleasure, and then often colds. Therefore, the court physicians recommend eliminate this food from the menu.
The Imperial Ball (Mihaly Zichy).
Alexander I after the Napoleonic wars, traveled around Europe. He tried not to burden his motorcade chefs and carts with groceries and costing of the kitchen, which gets him on the road. However, later in the sanitary and security reasons, this practice is gradually disappearing, and with the second quarter of the XIX century emperors possibly eat on the go "their".
For all the simplicity of eating it with the name of Alexander I attribute the appearance of the famous Pozharsky cutlets. According to legend, the emperor during the next trip to Moscow, stopped to eat in the town of Torzhok in the restaurant Pozharsky. On the menu were listed veal vegetarian cutlets, just them and ordered the Emperor. However, Pozharsky was not veal. In order to avoid confusion, he ordered to urgently prepare the cutlets of chicken fillet. Cutlets king was so pleased that he asked meatballs recipe, calling them "Pozharsky" by the name of the innkeeper. This random "know-how" is loved by many today.
It is noteworthy that this traditional nobility to the table everyday as granular, or payusnaya Kets caviar, began to penetrate into Europe was under Alexander I. At first the foreigners looked on as the spawn of the exotic "Russian" product. First Consul Bonaparte, who sent Count Markov caviar, got her out of the kitchen cooked: Russian desk at the time was little known in foreign lands.
Nicholas I (1796-1855) and his beloved cabbage soup (soup)
Unlike his older brother, Nicholas I for breakfast I did not like strawberries and pickles. And generally, it many considered a champion of a healthy lifestyle.
Memoirs unanimously emphasize culinary simplicity Emperor Nicholas I. The French artist O. Vernet, who traveled in Russia with the emperor in 1842, wrote to relatives: "The Emperor - Grand teetotaler; he eats only cabbage soup with bacon, meat, a bit of game and fish, as well as pickles. Drinking water alone. " As for the "pickles", many of his contemporaries mentioned that the king really liked pickles. According to statements in 1840 Nicholas I had to submit daily morning five pickles.
He loved the buckwheat, which he served in a pot. Not particularly fond of the emperor expensive seafood dishes and game. In recent years, the life of Nicholas I preferred to vegetable dishes, soup of pureed potatoes and stewed fruit. Without a doubt, "the German" soup of grated potato king ordered his physician-physician consultant MM Mende, he first introduced into medical practice of fasting "at the highest level."
The potato soup.
As follows from the archival documents, the usual breakfast of Nicholas I was following. Early in the morning in the office of Nicholas I "ate tea." To it was issued "fryshtik", ie breakfast, consisting of sweet and sour bread, buns and two round crackers. Any spices Emperor avoided. Full allowance Emperor assumed and entertainment reporters who visited him in his office. Food was quite modest and included: refined sugar ( "refinad") 2 pounds (819 g, except in Russian pound 409, 5 g), black and green tea "family" that is the best firms, 18 spools ( 97 g of starting in the spool 4, 266 g), 3/4 pound of coffee Lebanese (103 g) and cream, and various rolls pretzel (rich, sugar, with anise, with salt), "Vitushka" and "sticks" .
At Easter in the imperial office was served cakes, and on Shrove Tuesday - morning pancakes.
For the workaholic Nicholas I everyday meals sometimes becomes an extension of the working day, as they were invited to two or three close to the king of person. At dinners "in private", without foreign, we continue to discuss informally the various "operational issues". This is another feature of the daily life of the emperor.
Very authoritative biographer Nicholas I says that the king "at lunch eating moderately, dinner is often a piece of black bread." Another memoirist, confirming the forbearance of the king for food, wrote that he "never had dinner, but usually when zipping pickles drinking two tablespoons of cucumber pickle." Also at the time of Nicholas I entered into the everyday life of the yard rolls, they ate hot in warmed napkin. To prepare these kalaches delivered at kitchen Moskvoretskaya royal water in special tanks. One of memuaristok mentions the name of the maitre d 'of Nicholas I. It was a Miller, whom the king had ordered, "so that at dinner he never had more than three meals, which was executed decisively."
Like any man, the emperor liked to eat ice cream as a child. However, when the doctors ordered his younger brother Nicholas I, Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, eat ice cream, then Nicholas in solidarity with the brother refused favorite treat.
For all the above culinary unassuming Emperor Nicholas I, during the gala dinners held sway common Anglo-French cuisine. Pushkin in the immortal "Eugene Onegin" described the "typical" table of the second quarter of the XIX century:
Before him roast-beef bloody
And tryufli, luxury young age, French cuisine the best color and Strasbourg pie imperishable
Between Limburg cheese alive
And golden pineapple.
As already noted, when traveling through the country emperors might well have to eat in a restaurant with a good reputation. And despite the phasing out this practice for security reasons, such episodes were repeated periodically, if not for themselves emperors, for their loved ones.
In such restaurants emperor could enjoy the gastronomic "hits" of his era. For example, Guriev porridge. As follows from the historically entrenched names of cereals, its name is associated with the name of the Minister of Finance Count DA Guryev. His track record is very respectable, but today few people remember Count Guryev Dmitry Alexandrovich (1751-1825) as a statesman and Minister of Finance. Remember him only as a man whose name is famous porridge. Though actually porridge authorship belongs not to him. I invented the famous porridge cook fortress Kuzmin Zakhar - "property" retired major Orenburg Dragoons Yurisovskogo George, who stayed Guryev. Subsequently bought Sasha Kuzmin with family and staff did cook her yard. Although there are quite a low fidelity version of what the author of the famous recipe of porridge is very Guryev.
Alexander II (1818-1881) and the meat on the coals
Alexander II, who unlike his father, the menu stuck to the refined European traditions. In addition, Alexander II, who as a passionate hunter, hunting is very appreciated meal in the fresh air after the hunt.
"Early in the morning with a head waiter and kitchen-furerom cameras are sent to the place of hunting; chosen near the beast, even in the wilderness of the forest, on open space as possible; poraschistyat some snow, prepare the table, here on the sidelines divorce plate, and breakfast is ready. The Emperor comes to the table, making a gesture with his hand, inviting for breakfast; all fit, surrounded the table and eat breakfast standing; the chairs were not supposed to. Gorgeous picture! The Emperor and the whole entourage dressed alike; Only in the middle of the group you see a tall, majestic figure of the Emperor "- recalled an eyewitness of these meals.
As a rule, have breakfast around the hunters gathered peasants and retired soldiers from the nearby villages. The emperor could take a petition or order the official to the "royal box" to give farmers a ruble, and the Knights of St. George - three. Eyewitness can be illustrated by maps from "Hunter deck" court artist M. Zichy, who has participated in such hunts. On the maps he drew scenes of one of the winter hunting in 1860. On one of the drawings moose came to set the table, and the palace waiters kicking against "intruders" pans. The next picture is very respectable generals retinue in Russian decided to eat at night, they began to warm themselves in the kitchen pasta and, of course, they burned them. It should be noted that in the second half of the XIX century pasta cost is quite expensive and usually imported from Italy (though the first pasta factory in Russia was opened in Odessa at the end of the XVIII century).
Despite the camp surroundings, tables "on hunting the open air" was covered with starched tablecloths on the table were placed porcelain plates, crystal decanters with drinks and a plate of hors d'oeuvres. Save the picture, where the Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich (Art.) Bites on one of the hunts. Everyone, including the emperor, eating while standing or sitting on a stump, holding a plate in his lap. During these meals Alexander II loved to taste a piece of bear or a bear liver, cooked on the coals.
bear meat on the coals.
After the end of the hunt, already in residence, I set the table, which passed fresh meat killed game. As a rule, during lunch orchestra playing court hunting of 20 people.
Maria Alexandrovna, about 1860.
In his younger years, Alexander II, who was still crown prince, spoiled his wife. On his orders the fall in the dining room at half crown princess put a potted apple tree with fruits to Maria Alexandrovna herself could disrupt liked apple. Spring set first baskets of strawberries and other berries. However, after over-indulgence, the fruit began to send other special ...
Alexander III and hash in the sour-milk, as he loved the Emperor
But the most fascinating is the story about the culinary preferences of Alexander III. As the Emperor loved and ate delicious, and even how many times in the night.
Yes, Alexander III was struggling with excess weight, because he believed that shapeless, fat Emperor discredits the usual good-looking appearance of the Russian autocrat. But, like all dieters sometimes broke and strive to eat at an inopportune time. This problem was solved by valet. For example, in the Gatchina Palace in the room for the private apartments of Alexander III kept a washbasin, two samovars and pan with a support on which the valets were something "in a hurry" to warm up to the emperor. There memoirs mention that already seriously ill emperor, who was sitting on a milk diet from time to time asked me to bring him the most simple dishes soldiers from the barracks guards.
It keeps the mass of evidence and memoirs of various culinary history the reign of Alexander III. If we talk about his culinary preferences, then, according to contemporaries, the king in food was moderate and he loved the simple, healthy table. One of his favorite food was pig with horseradish "on test", which is sure to be requested at the time of visits Moscow.
A well-known chronicler of old Moscow Gilyarovskii in his famous book "Moscow and Muscovites" mentioned that "the Petersburg nobility headed by the Grand Dukes came specially from Petersburg to eat Testovskaya pig bisque with pies and the famous Guriev porridge."
Stuffed Testovskaya pig.
At the same time simplify the gastronomic predilections of Alexander III does not follow. Good food with fine and varied dishes - quite a common thing in the imperial palace, but the "merchant" pig with horseradish was rare exotics in the style of "a la russe." However, apparently, the combination of fine sauces and "folksy" food and was typical gastronomic Emperor style. So, one of the people close to the king mentioned that "he is very fond of Cumberland sauce and was always ready to eat pickles, which are preferred in Moscow." Apparently, for the king of Cumberland sauce and pickles organically combined. Based on the memoir mentions Alexander III really enjoyed savory sauces. I loved so much that he could thank the "amiable telegram" for "some particularly tasty sauce, brought him to Vladimir Alexandrovich from Paris."
This famous sauce was reproduced with varying degrees of success by several generations of courtiers head waiters. For example, Cumberland sauce was served on the ceremonial dinner in 1908 (in Revel) during Nicholas II meeting with the English King Edward XVIII. According memoirist, "dinner was held very lively ... When a wild goat with sweet jelly krasnosmorodinnym filed striking Cumberland sauce, the famous gastronome (referring to the English king - I. Zimin.) Praised:" With this sauce you can eat, and his own mother, "" . Pierre Kuba, the maitre d ', was very pleased.
It should be noted that the culinary habits of Alexander III remained a mystery even for very close to the king of dignitaries. What was served during the festive meal, it was a quality restaurant options menu. And the fact that the king ate, did not go beyond the usual, very high, but the standards.
Dessert Buffet (exposition "Arkhangelsk").
In 1889, during a military exercise, Alexander III lived a few days in the country house of the Secretary of State AA Polovtsev. Among other things, the owner worried menu drawing on these few days. Although Polovtsev has repeatedly been at meals and in the winter, and in the Anichkov Palace, its extremely puzzled to find your favorite dishes Emperor. With this question he turned to Count SD Sheremetev, as he had already received the king in his village. On the question of what Alexander III gastronomic preferences, SD Sheremetev said: "Sour milk, and perhaps more than anything," adding that the Empress Maria Feodorovna no no gastronomic preferences.
Alexander III willingly ate fish. Very often cooked fish while relaxing in the Finnish archipelago. This is understandable, since this is where the king is often fished and mined them fish, of course, served to the king's table. It is clear that fish caught personally, especially tasty. While relaxing in the Finnish royal family surrounded a modest number of courtiers, and the family was trying to live a life of "ordinary people". Maria Fyodorovna personally fried flounder, a favorite delicacy of the emperor.
From sweet in his younger years, Alexander III loved candy and fruit mousse. I loved it at the end of breakfast drink hot chocolate.
The quality of the chocolate, which is specially prepared, the king often not suited to him: "The Emperor tried and sharply pushed the cup. "I Can not get - he said Zeddeleru - that I was served a decent chocolate. '" It's hard to say what he was comparing the quality of the supply of goodies.
It should be noted that the king's "irritation" at the table could occur for a variety of reasons. For example, during one of the Emperor's breakfast "I threw fork in surprise ugliness of its form." He also had "diplomatic history" with cutlery. For example, on one of the "diplomatic breakfast" when the Austrian ambassador dropped that in response to the Russian military exercises conducted Austria will come closer to Russia's borders several army corps, Alexander III lost his temper very prudently. He turned his fork corkscrew and throwing it to the side of the Austrian ambassador, he added: "That's what I'll do with your bodies."
Serving the imperial table. Photos from the exhibition in the Nicholas Hall of the Winter Palace.
The Emperor was hospitable, but the zealous owner. So, he was not averse to occasionally personally check accounts and dinner costing Gofmarshalskoy part. The Gatchina palace dinners were on the first floor of the Arsenal hall not far from the scene, and a children's wooden mountains. As a rule, meals were accompanied by music. The lunch menu consisted of two parts: one half of the printed culinary menu, on the other - the musical menu. After dinner, held regular "cercle" (fr. "Circle"). Empress Maria Fedorovna welcoming all bypassed. The emperor offered to smoke and choose their own alcohol to taste.
Vasnetsov VM "ceremonial dinner menu Alexander III".
When traveling outside the iron rules and traditions of the imperial residences, Alexander III could afford some culinary liberties that were considered in the palaces frank mauvais ton. So, during a trip to the Caucasus in the autumn of 1888 the emperor happy to try dishes of Caucasian cuisine, ignoring the fact that they have a lot of onion and garlic: "Kind of onions and garlic brought him in admiration, and he zealously set out to him. The Empress was worried she could not stand garlic and reproached the Emperor, which filed a bad example. " Perhaps that is why on the watercolor "Caucasian series" 1888 court artist M. Zichy and portrayed Alexander III had breakfast alone. In the background sits the Empress, and had breakfast at a separate table. I did not find it, find another.
Family Dinner Alexander III (M. Zichy).
It is possible to cite a few of the menu of this journey. They show that during receptions dominated European cuisine. For example, September 19, 1888 during a trip to the Caucasus Alexander III offered a hodgepodge, pea soup, cakes, cold sturgeon with horseradish, pulyardu with mushrooms and strawberry ice cream.
At a luncheon with the officers, and the deputation in Vladikavkaz on September 20 on the table was served: okroshka, soup, American-style pies, burgers cold of stellate sturgeon, bordelez, fillet of pheasant Sauvigny, beef tenderloin with mashed potatoes with mushrooms, stewed pears on the champagne. And September 26, 1888: hash, soup Count, cake, cold sturgeon, partridge with cabbage, lamb saddle with a side dish, pear jelly.
Sauce bordelez (Bordeaux sauce). It consists of wine (red or white), sauce demi-glace and a little tomato sauce.
Since the emperor was a passionate hunter, the meal in nature, as in the case of Alexander II of, pay close attention. But judging by the note which reached the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, on some of the hunts usual meals for some reason are not satisfied: "I insist on breakfast in the woods: in the old days always does; same time for the device and clearing the appropriate place ahead of a lot. "
A group of members of the royal hunting for dinner; Right - Emperor Alexander III, to the right hand of him - Empress Maria Fedorovna; a third of it - the minister of the imperial court and pay I. Vorontsov-Dashkov.
the tradition was restored and scrupulously carried out under such "pressure." While the hunters were going in and out on the hunt, becoming "on the numbers," from the kitchen servants had their own worries. The forest went a bulky baggage crews. This is called the royal kitchen.
Chefs for preparing dinner in the forest during a royal hunt.
The Emperor Alexander III (far right), the Empress Maria Fedorovna (on his right) and members of the royal hunting during lunch in the forest; the extreme left (in a hat) - Prince Vladimir Baryatinsky.