As orphans lived in Tsarist Russia
Orphan unenviable share. In our time, the fate of homeless care of the state, so the child left without parents can count on shelter, food and education. This right is guaranteed by the Constitution to him. And how things were with orphans in tsarist Russia?
Bozhedom Potter's Field and
Attitude to orphans in Russia was twofold. On the one hand, even for adults it was difficult to survive in those days, so many other people's children did not care. On the other, it's a small and defenseless creatures. Throw them in the lurch for a people who believe in God, it was a grievous sin. What to do in such a situation?
VG Perov "Orphans in the cemetery."
In most cases, orphans taken in their family relatives. Of course, when their children complete hut, they often found themselves in the position of servants. Yet they fall to clothes from the other children, they were fed and not freezing on the street. Peasant life was harsh, and often children from 5 years of age or older to produce their own food and clothing alms, sleeping in haystacks or simply in the open. Parents, who could not feed their children, have the right to consent to their vows as a monk or write to the slaves, that is, to give a slave.
Nikolai Feshin, "Homeless."
Sometimes a child born out of wedlock. It was considered a disgrace for women. They are still being pregnant, trying to get rid of fruit, jumping from a height, bathing in hot water, or drinking an infusion poisonous ergot causes uterine contractions. If all the measures proved futile and the child is born, it belongs to the churchyard, which was called Potter's Field.
Cemetery caretaker-bozhedom picked these babies and transferred to the monastery. There they grow, accustomed to the work. When the children were growing up, they could train more serious crafts, for example, gave in povaryata. The monastery shelters also sent boyar children orphaned during enemy attacks.
Bogdanov-Belsky, "in the church."
The transition to the state of orphans care and first orphanages
In 996, Vladimir the Great issued a decree ordered the clergy "prizrevat" orphans, that is, take care of them. Yaroslav the Wise established the orphan school, with an enrollment of three hundred young men. And at the same time there was widespread trafficking in human beings, including street children. Such cases wrote in his book "Life and customs of the Russian people" Historian Nikolay Kostomarov.
He claimed: "There were some that came in force slaves: before the transition prohibition landowner peasants often brought them into slaves. In the XVII century the service people were trading the most outrageous way the female sex in Siberia. They forcibly took the helpless orphan girls, sometimes lure away from their fellow women, doing them fake castle acts and then passed from hand to hand, as a thing. "
Boris Godunov and SHUISKI taken steps to ensure that the poor, including orphans, bread and other food. Unfortunately, this is often a charity bears no fruit, because those who are in charge of distribution, included in the list of their relatives and friends.
The distribution of bread under Boris Godunov.
When Alexei quietest Kormchaia was reprinted in 1650. It had been made and the rules of the Orthodox Church, which belonged to orphans. And in 1682, during the reign of Feodor III of, imperial decree homeless stood out in a special category, the care of which the transition from private persons and clergy to the state. It was then decided to build a special children's institutions. They teach children skills and specialties that can support them.
The first "siropitatelnitsa" was built by Metropolitan Job. Before that orphans living in monasteries together with adults. By the way, families were very profitable "prizrevat" orphans as they become slaves - free labor. That is, there were a slave.
Marking and patronage under Peter I
When Peter I question oversee street children are fully given to the Office of magistrates. It is secular rather than spiritual power has been given the right to decide the fate of a child left without parents. Children appoint guardians from among relatives and gave them under the patronage of those who expressed a desire to take care of orphans.
Peter I ordered at the hospital to open children's room and take their children there. It was the first public institution "gap stretches for babies that of his wife and the girls give birth to iniquity and shame for otmetyvayut in different places from what other babies bezgodno they die, and the other from the same koi give birth, and put to death."
"A peasant woman with a child. Fire victims. "
These hospitals have been equipped with special windows that you can put a child, but the woman's face was not visible. Funded by these institutions partly due to the city treasury, in part - of the church alms and charity target. Unfortunately, these institutions were too few. Therefore, the church at the same time was not completely "excommunicated" from the care of orphans. So, for example, in Moscow street children were sent to the Novodevichy Convent.
Ekaterina II - benefactress orphans
When Catherine II project of the Empress's private secretary Ivan Betsky Foundling Hospital was established in Moscow. Its construction was carried out on money from donations, fines, as well as the first state pawnshop in Russia. In addition, in all the churches were sent proclamation, in which they were asked to equip shelters and "siropitatelnitsy". These proclamations were read out to parishioners after church. The queen herself has donated to the Orphanage needs about one million rubles.
Unfortunately, the influx of children in these homes was too high. Due to the epidemic mortality in them at times reached 82%. Therefore, infants initially started to give in the village guardians until 9 months of age, and later - up to 5 years. People who took care of the baby, pay 2 rubles per month for its maintenance.
FS Zhuravlev, "Children are the poor."
If a child reaches the age of five could not get into the Foundling Hospital due to lack of availability, he continued to live in a family of farmers under 17 years of age. Then, the boys became state peasants, that is not owned by a particular owner. They stood land. Girls were married off.
Unlike the previous rulers, during the reign of Catherine the Great orphans sent to foster homes, received custody of the state. Before they became serfs of the landlords default on which the lands were discovered (we are talking about foundlings), or those people who have taken care of homeless children.
There were times when to establish a shelter or Foundling Hospital was not possible. Then, for a small fee, a specially organized local government body, called the Order of the poor orphans, could give the children up for adoption or raise any decent citizen. However, in this case, the order had to follow the fate of the child up to the age of majority.
of the XIX century - the heyday of shelters
The first private, that is not the public and not the convent, orphanage in Russia Demidov became the shelter, which was built in place of the children's room in the House of Charity. Initially, it was brought up 6 boys and girls twice as much, but over the years the number of children has increased to 112. The patronage over this institution took over the Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. This shelter was named "exemplary". It taught custodians and their assistants, who were then sent to work in other similar institutions. Among the richest people it was made to take "in the children" or under the custody of orphans. For example, Julia Samoilova Contessa raised two babies. However, both girls were Italians.
The next picture, "The Rider". Portrait of Countess Samoilova with stepdaughter Amatsiliey
By 1889, there were 42 orphanages in Moscow alone. From 1895 to 1917 the system of children's foster homes diligence was organized in Russia. In honor of the birth of Princess Olga, they were called Olginskaya. They took orphans irrespective of caste and creed, which was an innovative solution in the field of public care. After the October Revolution, these institutions were abolished and they were replaced by children's homes.