First aid skills that everyone should know
For many years, we were given numerous recommendations on survival, but what if you were really close to the person who needs your help immediately (for example, a person has fainted or pants). Let's find out what still needs to be done if the person is on the verge of life and death.
First of all, we should recall that the very first thing you should do - is to call an ambulance. Next, decide what kind of help you are able to assist the victim and make sure that your own life is out of danger.
When the flight attendant gives instructions before the flight, he emphasizes the need for assistance in the first place itself - otherwise you will not be able to help someone else.
You do not have to be a health professional to be able to save human life, all that is needed - is to remember the basic guidelines for first aid.
How to do artificial respiration
When we talk about skills in first aid, the first thing that comes to mind - is cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR - a method that can save a person, if he had a heart attack. Of course, pass a training course would be superfluous, but even without the training, you can save someone's life. This one-minute video about the technique of performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation can prepare you for the operational life-saving.
Artificial heart massage can do everything (except infants), whose heart stopped beating. massage technique is performed shallow chest compressions with a frequency of about 100 times per minute and continued until the arrival of medical professionals.
First aid for a heart attack (heart attack)
Every seventh death occurs due to heart disease, so it is important to know the signs, as well as CPR and first aid for a heart attack. It happens that in some cases the symptoms point to cardiac arrest (which also requires a cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and in other cases at all so dramatic, and it may be that a person has the usual heartburn.
Once you call an ambulance, give the patient an aspirin, but make sure that it does not have an allergy, it is more than 16 years and that he was not taking medication, which can not be combined with aspirin.
If a person is choking
Sometimes in restaurants hang posters that illustrate techniques Geymliha - in helping plan choking when his airway blocked by a piece of food or other items. Chances are that we will see such posters are small in their daily lives, so in this video clearly demonstrates the application of this technique in practice.
Note: Before doing bumps in the stomach, it is necessary to perform 5 strokes with his hand on the back.
For infants and children, whose small trachea and a penchant for swallowing random objects inspire parents constant fear, there are other methods of first aid.
How to save a drowning
This is one of the most common accidental death, especially among children. If you are an inexperienced swimmer, remember that float to the man to save him - the last thing you can do for him. The site of "Family Doctor" offers the following formula for saving a drowning man: "Get it, throw, row, swim '
- Get. If a person is drowning near the edge of the pool or the pier, lie flat on the ground and try to reach out to a drowning. Use a tree branch, paddle, towel or poker, if you can not reach the person. If necessary, the dive and, holding on to the edge of the pool or the pier, try to reach out to a drowning man.
- Throw. Throw a lifeline (if he is at hand).
- Row. Swim to a drowning man in a boat (again, if available).
- Swim. Swim on their own - this is an extreme measure. Bring a life preserver, a towel or shirt to take a drowning man in tow.
How do I stop the bleeding
There are different types of bleeding ranging from small scratches to serious arterial bleeding. In this case, your task - as soon as possible to stop the bleeding. Wash your hands and put on medical gloves (if any, can also approach a plastic bag), then:
- Place the victim and cover it with a blanket. Lift the site of bleeding.
- Remove the clear dirt and debris from the wound, but do not try to remove large or deeply entrenched things on their own.
- Apply a bandage from bandage or clean cloth for 20 minutes and did not tear off the bandage from the wound to see if the bleeding has stopped.
- Attach, if necessary, the gauze.
- If the bleeding does not stop, perform pressure directly on the artery: pressure points on the hand are located on the inside of the arm just above the elbow and just below the armpit. Pressure points on the foot are located behind the knee and in the groin. Squeeze the main artery in these areas in front of the bone. Keep your fingers straight. With the other hand, continue to put pressure on the wound.
- Once the bleeding has stopped, leave the bandage in place and try to immobilize the injured part of the body.
How to treat burns
The large and severe burns, of course, need to be handled a doctor, but Dr. Matthew Hoffman on the WebMD site provides the following advice: "Immediately wash the burn with cool water for 10 minutes. Then cool the skin moist compress. In no case do not try to burn the place ice or butter. Gently clean the skin with mild soap and water. To ease the pain, you can take acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Motrin). Minor burns on the skin surface does not need to tie up. "
Channel BBC, however, recommends that rinse burn for 20 minutes with cold tap water (this measure keep the pain at 3 hours), and also advises remove clothing, and jewelry with a burn site.
By the way, that oil helps to burn - is a myth. People treat burns, yogurt, tomato paste, raw egg whites, chopped potatoes, vegetable oil. The oil may be you can help, if the skin got hot resin, while others leave the food to eat.
How to take birth in the car (or elsewhere)
It is believed that one of the fears of a pregnant woman and her partner is the fear to take delivery yourself. And if you do not often go out of the pregnant woman, the ability to deliver a baby - not the most important skill for you, but you never know in what situation can be. Therefore, the following tips are taken from the "Survival Handbook in the most adverse circumstances", will help you cope with this situation (by the way, it also states that, in principle, the child may be born by yourself - it just needs a little help).
- Calculate the time of uterine contractions. So you will understand whether or went into labor: time between contractions is from 3 to 5 minutes, and then 40 to 90 seconds, and the frequency and strength of contractions are increased within an hour. This applies never nulliparous women.
- Keep the head and body of the child in the course of its movement from the mother's womb.
- Wipe the newborn and keep him warm. Do not spank a child by the pope, but be sure to remove your fingers accumulated liquid from the mouth, if necessary.
- Tie a knot the cord a few inches from the child with a rope (or string).
- You must not independently cut the cord if you are close to the hospital. If, nevertheless, you have to wait for health care for longer, then carefully cut the umbilical cord, tied it to a few centimeters closer to the mother, then cut it to receive between nodes.
- If the child begins to emerge feet forward, then follow the same instructions.
How do I transfer a person
It is often better to leave the victim on the ground before the arrival of the ambulance. Never attempt to move a person with a head injury, neck or spine. But there are times when you need to move the victim to a safe place. If you are not very strong, but the man is too heavy for you, the following recommendations will help you cope with this problem, no harm to you or the victim.
- Make sure the person is to you face. Take his hand and perekin'te over his shoulder.
- Kneel or squat down so that the middle of the body of the victim was in front of your shoulder.
- Privstante, pushing the legs and thighs, do not lean forward, otherwise you can hurt your back.
- In this way people will be hanging on your shoulder, and you can go.
We recommend that you practice on children or medium-sized people. I hope that you never have to resort to first aid, but now you know what you can do, depending on the situation.