The history of the famous symbols of the Soviet Union
Many of the symbols of post-Soviet space is still recognizable, not only residents of the former Soviet Union, but also those who are already born in the new states. Since childhood, they can be seen in the films, programs, cartoons, meeting on posters, banners and posters. Seeding firmly in our minds, they have become the hallmark of the last century. We offer remember the popular symbols of the USSR and to plunge into the history of their creation.
Olympic Bear was not just a symbol of sporting events, but also the major sporting mascot of the Soviet Union. Its "parent" was the 42-year-old artist Victor Chizhikov, known illustrator of children's books. Since the animals were inherent quality of many sports, it was decided that it was a bear can reflect the tenacity, strength, and good-natured hospitality of the Soviet people.
In 1977, the Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games was a competition for the best sketch of a bear. The number of selected images was one of the sketches Chizhikova. He was asked to make an image in color. However, the bear was missing one important detail - the symbolism. A few months later came the decision itself, and bear to finish a belt with the Olympic rings. Six months later, Bear officially adopted the mascot of the XXII Olympiad, after which he gained recognition around the world. His image was used wherever possible: on posters, pennants, stamps, envelopes, badges.
particularly remember a six-meter bear on the balloons, which was to mark the end of the XXII Olympic Games. Soaring skyward and disappeared outside the stadium, the mascot has caused a storm of emotions among the spectators: they saw off Bear with tears in his eyes. So far it is not known where he landed and what happened to him.
"The Worker and the Collective Farm Woman"
One of the most famous symbols of the Soviet Union is a monument "The Worker and the Collective Farm Woman". 34.5 meters high sculpture depicted a boy and a girl who held over the heads of the emblem of the union - the hammer and sickle. image of the monument is often used in the film, printed on stamps, depicted on the medals.
In 1936, the Soviet Union took part in the World Exhibition of Art, held in Paris. It was at this event architect Boris Iofanom was asked to perform a step pavilion, dynamic direct upwards, the roof of which would have led the sculpture. In his view the building was supposed to embody the progress of the republic, cheerfulness, enthusiasm and prosperity. But the sculpture itself saw light as the Louvre Nike - Winged Victory, but the idea for a long time did not come to mind. Then there was a competition for the creation of the sculpture, which was won by Vera Mukhina. So there was a monument "The Worker and the Collective Farm Woman", who later became a symbol of the common people.
Hammer and Sickle
The most common emblem in the USSR was considered a "Hammer and Sickle", embodying the unity of the working class and peasants. She was often depicted on the emblem and flag of the Soviet republic, Mark, military uniform, banknotes, publications.
The first to propose it for use, was an artist Eugene Kazmolkin. In preparation for the May Day celebrations, he had to present a poster with the image of the unity of the people. As Hammer has always been the personification of the workforce for a long time, and sickle used by the peasants, the solution came by itself. On the same day Kazmolkin sent a sketch in the Moscow City Council, where he immediately became a major contender for victory. Officially symbol "Hammer and Sickle" was approved by the V Congress of Soviets in July 1918, and the artist's name is forgotten.
After the collapse of the Union emblem is often used by other countries, including those previously included in its composition. At this point, the symbolism is forbidden in Ukraine, Hungary, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Georgia. In some of them, its use entails criminal liability.
The presence of red tie has said that the child is part of the Pioneer organization. In appearance it looks like a triangle scarf, the ends of which signified the unity of the three generations of Pioneers, Komsomol, the party members.
Although the view was that the Pioneers take only the most obedient and quick-witted children, actually the entrance was open to all comers. Initially, the Pioneers were accepted only the best students, and then began to be accepted horoshist, and certainly the last thing Losers and restless. The ends of the tie fastened with a special clip, which soon had to be abandoned and replaced by an ordinary node. Speaking of which, wrongly knotted handkerchief was considered a disgrace to the pioneer.
There are several versions of headscarf-tie appearance. At the time of the pioneer organization in its members did not have distinctive attributes or symbols. During the next congress or meeting women workers removed the scarves from their heads and tied them to their children on the neck as a symbol of remembrance and pride for their country.
The opinion of historians on this subject diverge. Some of them argue that the tie was borrowed from the British scouts, as well as other attributes of the Pioneer organization.
In addition to the "hammer and sickle" the principal symbol of the Soviet Union was the Red Star Red Army. She was depicted in the uniform, the flag, the coat of arms and flag of the Soviet Union. Emblem symbolized the unity of the world proletariat, and the red color represents the revolution and the blood of purification. In the center of the symbols were depicted plow and the hammer (after the hammer and sickle).
To date, the creator of the Red Star, little is known. Some claim that the author was a symbol of the Commissioner of the Moscow Military District, the other - a member of the All-Russia panel on the management and organization of the Red Army. However, documentary evidence of these versions do not have.
Although the star as a symbol of the Red Army, appeared in 1918, it is known that it was used even in the imperial army. In 1827, the character was present at the generals 'and officers' epaulettes, and in 1854 - on the shoulder straps. After the Bolsheviks came to power, all the attributes of the imperial army were destroyed. A Red Star came to symbolize the liberation of working people from war, hunger, poverty and slavery.