People who have worked for the victory in the rear during the Great Patriotic War
Remembering the Great Patriotic War, we usually speak only of those who are directly involved with military actions: Soldiers on the battlefield, pilots, sailors, spies, partisans. Those who at that time was in a terrible war behind the scenes remain in the shadows. But in war there is no second role, whether you're just a turner or a scientist.
No gram in excess of
Working bakery № 61 named AE Badaeva Emilia Ctibor puts bread into boxes for shipment to the store in the siege of Leningrad
"Take a look at the picture. It is he. Not of papier-mâché, not plastic or concrete ... This is for you, my dear, I baked it in a rigid prescription of the time (cellulose, cotton cake, vytryaska of bags, corn and rye flour) baked in a single in the works in a factory winter №6 furnace. So he measured 125 grams, "- writes in his essay" by bread alone "journalist Yuri Rost, a child survivor of the famine hit the city siege.
"The dough was weak, bitter bread, but it was after all the bread, he gave life to people" - he recalled the baker of besieged Leningrad, Anna N. Gorokhov. It is not women's job was to carry on icy stairs to the fourth floor to the hot water 600 liter boilers, shipping sacks of flour, stand guard at the warehouse, to harvest peat.
Ration same bakers differed only in that they are "the same as the other, prepared grams warm". Another terrible memories - meal blood. "I remember the flour with the blood, but it is unlikely to have been a dream, it was the blood of Ladoga drivers", - says Anna.
Anna N. Gorokhov and Daniil Ivanovich Kyutinen - bakers blockade Leningrad
But to survive, this is certainly not enough for everyone. In the Book of Memory of besieged Leningrad kept a record of another baker - Daniil Ivanovich Kyutinene. February 3, 1942, he died right on the job at the age of 59 years from exhaustion, without eating a single gram more than its rules of bread. Baker technologist besieged Leningrad Anna A. Kapustin recalled: "Change and lasted for 16 and 18 hours in the shop - frosty. And in order to make the dough rise, need warmth. Wore rags, boards, branches and lit bonfires on the shop floor - traces of them have been preserved for a long time. Shot quilted jackets with ourselves and wrapped up the dough ... furnaces had to work continuously. Wood is not enough. It happened that six furnaces were heated only two, and even - one, but completely plant never stopped. "
Hot water, soap, kerosene
The total strength of the army in the beginning of 1945 was 14 million people, and each soldier had an average of 3 kg of underwear per week, which is needed to disinfect, wash, bleach, a darn and iron. For it at the front answered bath and laundry units. "Erased ... After the war with the trough has passed. Washed by hand. Jackets, tunics ... Lingerie bring it worn, pediculosis. Dressing gowns are white, well, these camouflage, they are through blood, not white, and red. Black with old blood. The first water wash is impossible - it is red or black ... tunic without sleeves, and a hole for the rest of the chest, the pants without legs. Tears washed and tears poloschesh. Mountains, mountains ... these tunics Vatnikov ... When I remember, and now hands hurt. Winter quilted jackets are heavy, blood on them frozen. I used them and now I dream of ... Lying black mountain ... "- recalls Maria ordinary baby, fighter field bath and laundry unit. Her words ever recorded Svetlana Aleksievich in the book "War is not a woman's face."
Before washing underwear soaked in kerosene to destroy the parasites on their clothes. After that, all boiled and vystiryvalos in bleach and lye. Corrosive compounds literally eroding women's hands. "The girls all my age, before parents have loved, spoiled. I was an only child. And then the craving wood stove drown. Then take the ashes in boilers instead of soap because soap will bring, and then - it was over. Linen dirty, lousy. In winter, heavy blood ... blood ... "- he said Svetlana Katyhin sergeant, soldier field bath and laundry unit.
Regimental laundry in the forest
In less than four months of the Winter War (Soviet-Finnish conflict 1939-1940) through the hands of bath and laundry detachment of the North-Western Front took nearly 6, 8 million kg of laundry, that is an average of 57 tons per day! But it was still ahead of the Great Patriotic War.
Pupils of a vocational school for the assembly of mortar in the besieged Leningrad
Due to the shortage of labor in the factories as well as women working young people 14-16 years of age and even younger: to support the work already took 11 years. At the beginning of the war in the Perm Engine Plant №19 them. Stalin, who for a long time was the only Soviet enterprise, which produced engines for fighters, worked about 8000 teenagers. "In 1943, I brought out of the Vologda region in Perm, in the aircraft factory. She worked as a turner. even I did not go home often from the shop - spent the night at the factory: in the boiler room, the toilet on the boxes. I remember I had shoes, canvas, with wooden soles. For the good work he received normal shoes and material of the dress. Here was a joy ... "- says Alexander Belyaev, in peacetime, became a deputy of the Perm City Council.
According to the recollections of another factory worker, Anna Titova, especially hard work was in the winter: "We worked for 12-16 hours a day. In the shops it was very cold, because there were all the time in the jackets. " In order to maintain the morale of the boys, the plant manager, General Anatoly Soldatov for the processing standards encourage young foremost a gift: a pair of boots, and - here's the real value! - jam jars.
Turner third discharge fifteen Tikhova Vera (left) at the bench in the besieged Leningrad. Valya Volkov (right) on the assembly of a PDP machines at the plant named after SP Voskova in besieged Leningrad
After awarding young turners, electricians, mechanics and supervisors depended lunch: soup, porridge, tea instead of the usual gruel. Today, the collective way of working adolescents war was the so-called "blockade Mona Lisa" - photo turner Petrograd Tikhov Vera plant. In its 15 years, girls perform fifteen adult norm, and even became a turner third category.
behind the wheel of
Maria Yakovleva. GAZ-AA ( "lorry") which she drove
"Song of the front driver" became the anthem of those who during the war did not part with "the wheel." Basically chauffeurs during the war were women. "In the 5th reserve regiment at the 3rd Guards Army, we were in a group of 200 girls who were in the drivers' courses. We were near the front. It is offensive - and we are close. Retreat - and we're back rumbles bowlers. In the afternoon there were lessons in the evening until 11 o'clock - drill "- recalls the front driver Catherine Vasil.
Another participant of the war, Maria Yakovleva, says that broke the front just to fight - Woman 17th birthday does not want to take until she showed fresh driving license - "The drivers we need!". "All winter I have with the right hand did not go bloody blisters. In the cold for a long time I had to turn the handle to start the engine. In the summer it starts faster, so the corn with hands disappeared. Chill harassed. We've had no coats. Outfit - sweatshirt, cotton pants, tarpaulin boots, a hat with ear-flaps. But for the cars, so they are always on the alert, in a special barrel constantly heated water and engine oil. Two people there is always a duty, firewood oven underlay. Hunger also harassed - fed poorly. When crossed the border, the food was better. " Victory Maria Vasilyeva met at Konigsberg. In civilian life, but the driver did not. Profession in civilian life, too, chose the most peaceful - teacher.
A beautiful solution
Mstislav Keldysh at a press conference at the Moscow House of Scientists
"One of the many mistakes that caused the failure of the Nazi campaign against the Soviet Union, there was an underestimation of Soviet science," - says physicist and Academician Sergei Vavilov, who became in 1945 the president of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Finds solutions and Russian researchers immediately introduced into the production. So, in the mid 30's leading designers around the world struggled with the problem of flutter - increasing shaking, because of which the transition to high speed airplanes literally falling apart. Problem was solved by the famous scientist Mstislav Keldysh, one of the fathers of the Soviet space program, with employees TsAGI. After a series of mathematical calculations, Keldysh formulated causes flutter, has developed a method of calculating the critical speed and the available practical techniques for damping vibrations occurring at the same time. A few years later, he managed to overcome the effects of shimmy - strong self-excited oscillation of the aircraft landing gear, leading to breakage during takeoff and landing. Mathematicians around the world still call this work "beautiful" and the most important for the development of Soviet aviation. The result - two Stalin Prize and the Order of Red Banner of Labor.
Dmitri Maksutov - Soviet scientist, an optician, a corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The inventor of the meniscus of the optical system that bears his name, which is now widely used in telescope making. Winner of two Stalin Prizes
During the war, his work is not interrupted and astronomers study which had primarily defensive value. Employees of the State Astronomical Institute of Moscow State University accounted for the navigation service bombers special tables of sunrise and sunset and the moon. In addition, in times of war it was invented meniscus telescope system that has played a huge role in the optical instrument. Dmitri Maksutov, inventor, recalled that the idea came to him on the road, during the evacuation, when the State Optical Institute was evacuated from Leningrad to Yoshkar-Ola.
Ivan Nazarov - Soviet organic chemist. USSR Academy of Sciences. Winner of two Stalin Prizes Repairing broken gas tanks, battery casing, drill, cylinder tanks and cars at the front helped the new invention of the Soviet chemist Ivan Nazarov - carbinol glue. For the development of the miracle glue in 1942, Nazarov received the State Prize. Glue and after the war, widely used in optics, in different branches of engineering, even for bonding marble subway.
Boris Y. Elbert (left) - a Soviet scientist in the field of microbiology. MD, Ph.D., professor. Honored Worker of Science of the Kyrgyz SSR. Nikolai Akimovich Gai (right) - microbiologist, MD, professor IGMI, creator of tularemia vaccine, Stalin Prize winner
Do not lag behind and doctors. During the war, physicians, chemists and biologists have created a vaccine against tularemia and tuberculosis, new medicines and ointments (including Vishnevsky ointment). For outstanding achievement of Soviet microbiology and immunology Gai and Elbert in 1946 was awarded the State Prize of the USSR.