10 random scientific discoveries that changed the world
As Plato said, science is based on feelings. 10 random scientific discoveries below - another proof. Of course, scientific schools, scientific research, and in general the whole life dedicated to science, has not been canceled, but luck and chance sometimes, too, can do the trick.
The invention of penicillin - a whole group of antibiotics that can cure a lot of bacteriological infections - one of the oldest scientific legends, but in reality it is just a story about the dirty dishes. Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming decided to discontinue the laboratory study of staphylococcus in the lab and took a month's leave. Upon arrival, he found a strange mold on the left dish with bacteria - molds, which killed all the bacteria.
Sometimes for scientific discovery is enough light snack. American engineer Percy Spencer, who worked for the company "Raytheon", once passed by the magnetron (vacuum tube emits microwaves), noticed that the chocolate melted in his pocket. In 1945, after a series of experiments (including those with exploding egg) Spencer invented the first microwave oven. The first microwave ovens, as well as the first computers, looked cumbersome and unrealistic, but in 1967, the compact microwave ovens began to appear in American homes.
Not just the appetizer might be useful to science, but also walk in the fresh air. Traveling through the mountains in 1941, Swiss engineer George Mestral noticed burdock that clung to his pants and his dog's fur. On closer inspection, he saw that burdock hooks clung to anything that had a loop shape. So there was a zip-type fastener. In English it sounds like "Velcro", which is a combination of the words "velvet" (velvet) and "crochet" (crochet). The most notable user of Velcro in the '60s became NASA used them in suits of astronauts and to secure objects in weightlessness.
Big Bang Theory
The discovery of the theory of the origin of the universe prevailing today started with a noise like radio interference. In 1964, working with the Holmdel antenna (large antenna in the form of horns, which in the 60s was used as a radio telescope), astronomers Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias hear background noise that puzzled them greatly. Discarding most of the available causes of the noise, they turned to Robert Dicke theory, according to which the radiation generated the remnants of the Big Bang the universe began to background cosmic radiation. At 50 kilometers from the Wilson and Penzias, at Princeton University find this background radiation engaged himself Dicke, and when he heard about their discovery, he told colleagues: "Guys, it seems, is a sensation." Later, Wilson and Penzias won the Nobel Prize.
In 1938, a scientist Roy Plunkett was working on how to make refrigerators more suitable for home and replace the then existing coolant, consisting mainly of ammonia, sulfur dioxide and propane. After it has opened the container with one of the samples was working, Plunkett found that gas inside evaporated, leaving behind a strange slippery similarity rosin, which was resistant to high temperatures. In the 1940's, this material was used in the project to develop nuclear weapons, and a decade later - in the automotive industry. And only in the 60's began to use Teflon familiar to us way - for non-stick cookware.
In 1830 rubber plant used for the production of water-resistant shoes, but he had one big problem - instability to high and low temperatures. It was believed that the rubber has no future, but Charles Goodyear was not agree with this. After several years of trying to make rubber more reliable, the scientist stumbled upon what turned into his greatest discovery quite by accident. In 1839, during a demonstration of one of their latest experiments Goodyear accidentally dropped rubber on a hot stove. The result was a charred leather-like substance in a flexible rim. Thus, the rubber has become resistant to temperatures. Goodyear did not get profit from his invention and died, leaving huge debts. Already after 40 years from the date of his death took his name known so far the company "Goodyear".
The inventor of Coca-Cola was not a businessman, a trader sweets or anyone else, who dreamed of getting rich. John Pemberton just wanted to invent a normal cure for headaches. Being a pharmacist by profession, he used two ingredients: coca leaves and kola nut. When his assistant accidentally mixed them with carbonated water, the world saw the first Coca-Cola. Unfortunately, Pemberton died before his medicine has become one of the most popular beverages in the world.
For scientific discovery may bring bad weather. In 1896, French scientist Henri Becquerel experimented on enriched uranium crystal. He believed that sunlight was the reason that the crystal burned through his image on a photographic plate. When the sun disappeared, Becquerel decided to put things in order to continue the experiment in another clear day. A few days later he took the crystal from the drawer, but the image on the plate, lying on top was the way he described the fog. Crystal radiated rays, which have obscured the plate. Becquerel did not think about the name of this phenomenon and proposed to continue the experiment two colleagues - Pierre and Marie Curie.
Angina - a common name for a chest pain, especially spasms in the coronary arteries. The pharmaceutical company "Pfizer" has developed a pill called UK92480, to narrow the artery and reduce the pain. However, tablet, having failed in its original purpose, was a very strong side effects (you can probably guess which one), and was later renamed the "Viagra". In the past year, "Pfizer" sold these little blue pills in the amount of 288 million dollars.
Housework sometimes exasperated, especially when dust covers your entire face. Jamie Link, a chemist from the University of California at San Diego, working on the same silicon chip. When he accidentally crashed tiny pieces still continued to send signals, acting as a small sensors. These small particles are self-assembled it dubbed "smart dust". Today, "smart dust" huge potential, particularly in the fight against tumors in the body.