Slaves from the Caucasus, who ruled Egypt 300 years
• Slaves from the Caucasus, who ruled Egypt 300 years
In the XIII century the power of Egypt captured the representatives of the military aristocracy - the Mamluks. It was a very special class, which was formed from the slaves captured in the territory of Russia: Polovtsian, Georgians, Circassians and Circassians and according to some reports. and even Russian. Their state was strong regional leader, and lasted for nearly 300 years.
As the slaves became aristocrats
In the medieval Islamic world was a very popular practice of using slave warriors. The word "Mamluk" can be translated as a slave, a slave. Egyptian Arab sultans and sheikhs tried to create an army of ideal men. They bought slaves on slave markets, put them in a closed schools, where they tirelessly trained to kill for the glory of Allah and his master.
Mamluks became only those slaves who were captured in the wild during the military operations of Muslims in the northern limits of their powers. Therefore, the bulk of them were boys from the North Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, and the Great Steppe. Lev Gumilev wrote that the Mamelukes such a situation quite like it, and they did not try to escape. The prospects of escape and freedom were very questionable: alone in a foreign land, they were condemned to death. A service of the sultans, on the contrary, promised benefits. Until the legendary Saladin, the Crusaders winner Mamluks were slaves, but were very good. They could become generals. Later, when in these parts heard about the success of their compatriots, many young Circassians and Kipchaks steel themselves voluntarily to join the Mamluks. Even before the release of the Mamluks to actively influence the policy of maintaining the desired dynasty in Cairo palace intrigues.
When Saladin, in 1170's, the Mamelukes and other military began to receive parcels of land in the property, the slaves suddenly become lords. Saladin was able to win the civil war was due to the fact that such a generous gesture, put on its side military elite of Egypt. But this Saladin dug the grave of their Ayyubids dynasty - in 1250 the Mamluks killed descendant of Saladin - Muazzama Turan Shah, and themselves lead the country.
Mamelukes Mamelukes river and tower
At the beginning of the XII century, the Mamluks were very influential and a closed corporation. Gumilev wrote that the Mamluk forces were formed along ethnic lines was: "And now imagine the following picture. To the slave market, where there are naked boys, the centurion comes in a turban, trousers in luxurious, with a sword at his side and shouted: "Come on, the baptized who from Chernigov, who of Murom, answer me!" Someone speaks, and the centurion leads them to their barracks, to include in its squad. Then comes another centurion, shouting: "Hey, Ulanlar, quel Mende". It is replaced by a third-speaking Circassian, the fourth - in Alani, the fifth - in Georgian, and so until all disassemble his countrymen. The principle of ethnic affinity is maintained more strictly than in any other conflicts. "
As a result, two groups stood out: Bahri Mamluks, who were mostly Polovtsy-Kipchaks, and Burji - Caucasians and Greeks. Bahri translates to a big river, since the training camp of the Mamluks was on the Nile island, and the Burji - a tower, because the Mamluks Caucasians trained at Cairo's forte.
Source: The Mamelukes: slaves from the Caucasus, who ruled Egypt 300 years
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