New Year: How I celebrated the feast of Peter I
In December 1699 the official celebration of the imperial decree was appointed as of 1 January
Russian effort to synchronize calendar events with a European at the end of December 1699 Emperor Peter I ordered an official decree to transfer the celebration of the New Year on January 1st. Although its main purpose the Emperor had not been achieved, thanks to this document, the main foundations of the Christmas customs were established in Russia, from jewelry made from coniferous trees to long New Year holidays.
"The first day in the year,"
Except for the transition from the old to the new style, which the Russians are obliged by occurrence in our festive calendar of the old New Year, the date of the new year changed three times in Russia. Celebrate it in Russia began long before the celebration drew the attention of the Emperor, opened a window to Europe: the first mention of this festival are found in the records at the end of the XIV century. Then he fell on March 1 - the date coincided well with both the Orthodox calendar (counting the new year was the day of the creation of the world), and with the life of the majority of the population is engaged in agriculture. On the day of the arrival of spring new year celebration, as it was then called, it seemed more than logical.
In 1492, the New Year waiting for the first change - the date of its celebration, in accordance with the definitions of the Council of Nicaea, the church was moved on 1 September. However, the way of life of the peasants, for which the year of active agricultural operations at this point, by contrast, was completed, it was related enough. And a national scale this holiday, which, according to the extant "Paris dictionary Muscovites", known as "the first day of the year", and has not received. The main celebrations then unfolded at the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin. Patriarch, accompanied by clergy, addressed to the king with a speech in which he inquired about his health. The king gave a speech response, closes with the words "God Gave alive." Then bowed to the king and the patriarch approached by representatives of the clergy, and after that brow beat all those present in the square.
Moving boundaries times
Peter I, who occupied the throne, set out to not only bring a Christmas tradition in Russia in line with the European calendar and the calendar of most Slavic countries, where the New Year at this point is marked on January 1 but also, in fact, finally turn it into a large-scale national holiday.
A good opportunity for this truly epochal changes introduced herself as a spent time in 1699, when replaced XVII century came a brilliant XVIII century. Like most endeavors of Peter I, brought up in the habits of the Russians demanded that the feast of the emperor known rigor. And at the end of 1699 the emperor issued a decree, which ordered to change the celebration date.
"On January 1 of the Future comes the new 1700, and kupno new century a century; and for good and useful things continue to have the summer to number in the orders, and in all sorts of affairs and fortresses to write with the current January 1 of the Nativity in 1700, "- said in particular in the first part of the document.
"Uchino decorations from the tree branches of pine"
Simply moving date of Peter I was not limited to - in the decree of the emperor including detail described how the inhabitants of the empire should celebrate a new year and century. The basis of the Russian New Year traditions were to form habits, with which the Emperor himself had met in Germany.
On the eve of the noble residents of houses located on the main street, in front of the gate should "inflict some decorations from the tree, and branches of pine, spruce and juniper." People as "poor" was given an indulgence - it could confine itself to establish "although the tree or branch" on the gate.
wishes to do everything on the highest level could consult with the samples exposed for this purpose at the Gostiny Dvor in St. Petersburg. But in general, citizens were allowed to show imagination and coming up with decorations, assume "someone as comfortable and decently."
"Red Square fiery fun ignite and shooting will be"
With a light hand of Peter I in Russian New Year traditions also came and fireworks, which, according to the Emperor's idea, the scale had to meet an occasion. Time for them to have occurred on January 1st.
"Well yes of January, in 1 day, as a sign of joy; each other congratulating the new year and century-century, and to inflict these things, when the big red square fiery fun ignite and shooting will, then by the noble courtyards, boyars and Okolnichy everyone on his yard from small pushechek, Buda who have, and several muskets or other small guns to inflict ", - stated in the royal decree.
At the same time on the streets of St. Petersburg, and especially at intersections, it was planned to light big fires.
The tradition of all times and ages
But most importantly - through the efforts of Peter I in the Russian Empire in 1700, first appeared multi-day New Year holidays, because, according to the decree, the festivities were to last until 7 January.
Although to achieve its main objective, to synchronize the Russian New Year with a European, he has not succeeded - at this point the majority of European countries have already switched from the Julian, which focused in Russia, the Gregorian calendar and marked the onset of the new century, 10 days earlier, - Emperor managed to establish a tradition of the New Year holiday, which took place almost unchanged through the variety of times, epochs and stages of national history.