What happened to the leaders of the socialist countries after the collapse of the USSR
What happened to the leaders of the socialist countries, after they turned off the socialist road.
Erich Honecker (1912 -1994)
The future leader of the GDR, Erich Honecker was born August 25, 1912 in the small German town of Neukirchen in miner's family. His father was a member of the first social-democratic, and after, the Communist Party. Therefore Erich childhood brought up in communist ideals. Secondary education he got at the Moscow International Lenin School, after which joined the Communist Party of Germany. Perhaps it Honekerra be called the creator of the Berlin Wall - August 13, 1961, he personally supervised its construction. His "child" he prophesied for years: The Wall will stand for another hundred years, until they are eliminated the causes that led to its construction. " Ten years later, he was appointed general secretary of the Central Committee of the SED. With him in the GDR regime it was much stronger than in Poland, Czechoslovakia and Hungary.
Erich was a staunch communist and loyal friend of the Soviet Union. During his meetings with heads of state Brezhnev kissing three times, giving rise to many jokes then, both in the Union and the GDR. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the unification of Germany, Erich asked for asylum in the Union is, for the homeland he risked a political reprisal for the execution of people who were trying to cross the wall. But with the fall of the Soviet Union on an old friend, forgotten in Moscow, asked Erich to flee the country. Disgraced leader managed to find refuge in the Chilean embassy in Moscow.
Later he emigrated to South America, where he ended his life, remaining until the end of his faithful communist ideals.
Wojciech Jaruzelski (1923-2014)
The future leader of the Polish People's Republic - Wojciech Jaruzelski childhood soaked anti-Russian sentiment. As he later told in an interview with journalist Ariadna Rokossovsky, his grandfather took part in the January Uprising in 1863, spent several years in exile in Siberia, his father had fought in the Polish-Bolshevik war. After the annexation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union his family deported to Siberia "like cattle". Paradoxically, this is where Wojciech and other deported people "know and love the simple Russian people." Then all joined the war against the common enemy. After a long military and political career in 1969 Voytsleh was appointed Minister of Defense of Poland, in 1989 became the second president of the Polish People's Republic and the first post-communist president of the Republic of Poland. Subsequently, not just remembered as an intelligent person of him who, according to the ex-President of Poland Alexander Kwasniewski, "tried as best as possible to serve their country."
But around the time he broke not only the country but also of life. After the peaceful "revolution" in the country and the coming to power of an opposition party leader of "Solidarity" Lech Walesa, Jaruzelski was charged with crimes during the "communist regime" - in particular, in the introduction of martial law in Poland on the night of 12 on December 13, 1981 year, in the midst of anti-government protests of the same "Solidarity". Before coming to power, "Civic Platform" was general in disgrace. He was even deprived the state award "Cross exiled to Siberia." More precisely, he returned it after the statement of the Office of Lech Kaczynski, that he received it unjustly.
In August 2011, in connection with health, the court ruled Jaruzelski from the membership process in the case of the imposition of martial law. Only the general could not enjoy a free life. In early May 2014, he suffered a stroke and died four days earlier, on 24 May.
Nicolae Ceausescu (1918-1989)
Nicolae Ceausescu called "Romanian Stalin." The parallels are actually there. In many ways, even in the biography of the facts. Ceausescu was born into a peasant family January 26, 1918. Out of ten children in the family, he was the third. The family lived in poverty - in a house of three small rooms, where there was not even electricity. Therefore, when the shoemaker's workshop, he met with Communist ideas, Nicholas became interested in them so that up to 1944, he was much less free than sitting in prisons and camps. August 23, 1944, when he was deposed and arrested by pro-German Prime Minister of Romania, Ion Antonescu, Ceausescu escaped from prison. December 30, 1947 in Romania was abolished monarchy and became a republic Ceausescu Minister of Agriculture. Through collectivization, he personally shot too obstinate villagers. Nevertheless, favoring a policy independent of Romania, Ceausescu has achieved incredible popularity in the country. In December 1967 he was elected head of state in place of the deceased by Gheorghiu-Dej cancer. Being an ardent Stalinist, Ceausescu did not accept Khrushchev's policies, and headed for the deterioration of relations with the Soviet Union and rapprochement with the Western bloc. At the same time everywhere in Romania Ceausescu introduced the cult of personality and tightened repression. Obviously, the Romanian leader really decided to become a "second Stalin," the communist world.
In the end, "tightening the screws" led to an uprising of the Hungarians in Timisoara, and then to the general anti-communist revolution. Chuashesku tried to escape, but was arrested with his wife in the town of Targovishte. Hastily organized an extraordinary revolutionary tribunal indicted: crimes against the state, genocide against its own people and undermining the national economy. He was executed on the day of announcement of the verdict, March 25, 1989.
János Kádár (1912-1989)
Where in Europe are nostalgic for the socialist regime, so it is in Hungary. Head of the Hungarian People's Republic, Janos Kadar, was a supporter of the NEP rather than centralized planning. He gave the state enterprise financial independence that has kept the country's market economy. His "goulash communism", got its name from the fact that the Hungarian people could easily afford national meat dish every day. During the leadership of Hungary Janos Kadar, the country ranked first in Europe for the production of wheat and meat per capita basis, and the second - the number of eggs. Unlike other countries of the socialist bloc, which is often experienced shortages.
The possibility of partial market economy, based on state and cooperative ownership, exhausted only in 1970. But they gave Hungary the basis for the transition to a free market economy, which had no other socialist countries. Hungarian "Perestroika" was held gently. Janos Kadar was removed from all his posts in May 1988, handing control of the party Karoyu Grosso. He died a year later. But even after his death and the overthrow of the old system, the Hungarians remembered his good word, and at times like ponostalgirovat Kadar government. According to recent polls, about 75% of people believe the head of state János best in its history.